Phillip A. Karber, "Strategic Significance of the Western Conventional Arms Control
Proposal: In the Context of the Gorbachev Unilateral Reductions and the CFE Negotiations in Vienna," Testimony before the Senate Armed Services Committee, April 6, 1989,
Phillip A. Karber, NATO-Warsaw Pact Force Levels in a Conventional Arms Control Context, Vol. 2, Atlantic-to-the-Urals Summary, Washington, D.C.: BDM Corporation, August 11, 1989, passim.
"Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe: NATO Objectives," in United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) Arms Control Update, March 1989, No. 12, pp. 4-5; and Phillip A. Karber and
John H. Milam, "Conventional Force
Reduction in Europe: A Comparison of NATO and WTO CFE Proposals," Presentation
before the New Alternatives Workshop: Arms Control and Technology, May 25, 1989,
pp. 1-8. The proposed subceiling on Armored Infantry Fighting Vehicles (AIFVs) is intended to cap the number of more sophisticated and lethal turretted fighting vehicles that
could be retained as a part of each side's total entitlement to ATCs, which would also
include armored personnel carriers. For the United States and others in NATO, the distinction is between our Armored Personnel Carriers (APCs), most of which are of the M113
variety, and AIFVs like the U.S. Bradley fighting vehicle and German Marder. On the
Pact side, the BTR is considered an APC, whereas the BMP is considered an AIFV. The
1,200 ceiling on AIFVs would not require NATO to reduce any AIFVs, but the WTO
would be required to eliminate roughly half of its current AIFV holdings.
Milam, "Conventional Force Reductions in Europe," pp. 10-11. The
Pact's Armored Fighting Vehicle (AVF) definition appears to be roughly coincident with NATO's definition of Armored Troop Carriers (ATC). The one notable difference appears to be NATO exclusion of armored reconnaissance vehicles.
"Declaration of the Heads of State and Government Participating in the Meeting
of the North Atlantic Council in Brussels (May 29-30, 1989)," Press Communiqué M-1 (89) 21, NATO Press Service, May 30, 1989, p. 4.
Mr. Thomas Marshall and
Dr. Charles Bailey, "CFE: Overview and
Status," July 20, 1989, Science Applications International Corporation, 1710 Goodridge
Drive, McLean, Virginia 22102.
"Declaration of the Heads of State and Government," pp. 4-5.
Several allied nations, to include especially the FRG, have indicated an intent to
take manpower reductions (e.g., Bundeswehr 2000) and were willing to be included in
a broader NATO manpower reduction proposal in order to justify these reductions
ACDA Arms Control Update, pp. 4-5; and Karber, NATO-Warsaw Pact Force
Levels, p. 9.
Milam, "Conventional Force Reduction in Europe," p. 14.