But not all Americans, today, are prepared to accept this pragmatic outlook and emphasis. Two world wars in close succession, a multitude of new national evils like divorce, juvenile delinquency, the degradation of public taste and the occurrence of formidable international problems involving the threat of complete annihilation by atomic energy, has made them doubt the truth and question the efficacy of this philosophy, which has attempted to make human experience, human will, and human intellect the sole foundation of all hope and effort.Judged indeed by the observable practical consequences of its own applications in human experience for more than a quarter of a century, the pragmatic faith in the use of human intelligence and cooperative effort seems to many critics truly ill founded, misleading and ultimately futile. Man's mind, they declare, is too limited in capacity, and his will too competitively selfish and feeble in moral resolution, to afford safe guidance in this precarious, often tragic, world of daily events. Under these circumstances, pragmatic philosophy offers far too little of needed personal solace, enduring wisdom, and assured cosmic guidance.But whatever the outcome of these current attacks on Pragmatism, it surely represents the most important original American attempt to formulate a philosophy which would help men in a democratic society to solve those vital problems of belief and conduct produced by the domination of science and technology. MAURICE BAUMSUGGESTED READINGS
DEWEY JOHN, Democracy and Education. Macmillan, 1916.
---- How We Think. Rev. ed., Heath, 1931.
---- Problems of Men. Philosophical Library, 1946.
---- Reconstruction in Philosophy. Holt, 1920.
HOOK SIDNEY (Ed.), John Dewey: Philosopher of Science and Freedom. Dial Press, 1950.
JAMES WILLIAM, Essays on Faith and Morals (Selected by R. B. Perry). 1949.
---- Pragmatism. Longmans, Green & Co., 1907.
---- The Varieties of Religious Experience. Longmans, Green & Co., 1902.
PEIRCE C. S., Chance, Love and Logic (ed. by M. R. Cohen). Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1923.
PERRY R. B., The Thought and Character of William James. 2 vols. Little, Brown & Co., 1935.


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