Protectionism: Trade Policy in Democratic Societies

By Jan Tumlir | Go to book overview

1 The Economic and Political Aspects of Protection

Understanding the Extent of Protection

At the end of the 1960s, the trend toward a more open trade, especially among the Western nations, was reversed. As trading conditions have grown increasingly unstable, other national and international economic problems have become more difficult to deal with, and the level of acrimony in international relations has risen. Although many are worried by the rise of protectionism, few realize how far it has already gone. Most Americans seem to consider it a regrettable but still exceptional practice, a minor though spreading blemish on the network of predominantly liberal trade of which the United States is the undisputed paragon. We think mainly of Japan when we discuss protection.

In fact, a very large proportion of international trade is under some kind of nontariff restraint and moves only with the permission of the governments concerned, not in spontaneous response to market demand or at market-determined prices. This is a result of policies pursued by all governments, including ours. Widespread belief to the contrary notwithstanding, it is impossible to show that Japan is noticeably more protectionist than many other industrial countries; what can be shown is that Japan has accepted more restrictions on its exports than it has imposed on its imports. The trade restrictive and regulatory policies in force are so detailed and complex that their total effects on each nation are beyond the comprehension even of politicians, let alone of the public. The levels of this protection cannot be measured in any strict sense of the word, and even the very rough quantitative estimates that have been formed of them are not very meaningful.

Most people think of protection against imports almost exclusively in terms of tariffs. Tariffs are, however, only a minor part of the problem, as I shall try to show. Far more important are quantitative restrictions, devices by which governments determine a given amount--

-1-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Protectionism: Trade Policy in Democratic Societies
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Contents iii
  • Foreword v
  • Jan Tumlir - August 18, 1926-June 22, 1985 vii
  • 1 - The Economic and Political Aspects of Protection 1
  • 2 - The Historical Aspects of Protection 19
  • Notes 36
  • 3 - The New Protectionism 38
  • Notes 55
  • 4 - A Systemic Solution 56
  • Notes 72
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 72

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.