International Law and Diplomacy in the Spanish Civil Strife

By Norman J. Padelford; Bureau of International Research of Harvard University and Radcliffe College. | Go to book overview

CHAPTER V
PROBLEMS IN DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR RELATIONS

COMPLICATIONS in the official relations between a state torn by civil strife and foreign states are frequent occurrences. Normally these difficulties revolve around the question of maintaining diplomatic relations with the established government and the commencement of negotiations with the insurgent authorities. During the Spanish strife a number of other problems arose, embracing in particular such matters as the departure of nearly all of the heads of missions from Spanish territory; the setting-up of official legations and embassies accredited to Spain in French territory; assault upon foreign diplomatic and consular officials; and the granting of asylum in embassies and legations.1


FLIGHT OF THE DIPLOMATIC CORPS TO FRANCE

At the outbreak of the hostilities many members of the diplomatic corps accredited to Madrid were summering at the resorts on the north Spanish coast. Severe fighting in the neighborhood necessitated evacuation from this area. With all roads leading to Madrid closed or cut, the Argentine, Belgian, British, Czechoslovak, French, German, Italian and Swedish envoys crossed the French border to Hendaye and St. Jean de Luz, where they immediately established official headquarters. The American Ambassador at first took refuge on board an American cutter,2 and with that as his headquarters, cruised off the coast of Spain for a fortnight, thus maintaining something of the fiction of remaining within Spanish jurisdiction, or at least staying out of the jurisdiction of a third state. On August 15, 1936, however, he landed at San Sebastian and proceeded to Hendaye, where, like the others, he remained throughout the duration of the strife.

____________________
1
See N. J. Padelford and H. G. Seymour, "Some International Problems of the Spanish Civil War," Political Science Quarterly, Sept. 1937, esp. pp. 374-379.
2
New York Times, July 27, 1936.

-144-

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International Law and Diplomacy in the Spanish Civil Strife
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xi
  • Chapter I - The Legal Status of the Contesting Parties 1
  • Conclusions 23
  • Chapter II - Interference with Foreign Shipping 25
  • Conclusions 50
  • Chapter III - The International Non-Intervention System 53
  • Chapter IV - The League of Nations and the Civil Strife 121
  • Conclusions 140
  • Chapter V - Problems in Diplomatic and Consular Relations 144
  • Conclusions 167
  • Chapter VI - The United States and the Civil Strife 169
  • Summary of American Policy 187
  • Chapter VII - The Termination of the Strife 189
  • Chapter VIII - Conclusion 196
  • Appendices 203
  • Index 675
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