The Western Frontiers of Imperial Rome

By Steven K. Drummond; Lynn H. Nelson | Go to book overview

pottery, and other wares began to take on a Celtic or German look, while at the same time they became cruder and more primitive in concept and execution. The design of frontier goods was a clear sign not so much that Roman industry on the frontier had ceased to advance, but that it had ceased to be Roman.


Notes
1.
Such conditions are, of course, advantageous to any business, regardless of the era.
2.
R. J. Forbes, Studies in Ancient Technology 7:153.
3.
By the third century A.D., complaints surfaced regarding the failure of Rome's mineral resources. Cyrian, "Ad Demitriam," 5:58, says that "to a less extent are slabs of marble dug out of the disembowelled and wearied mountains; to a less extent do the mines already exhausted offer quantities of silver and gold, and the impoverished veins are lessened day by day."
4.
Much of the metal required by the army was used for weapons such as javelin heads, arrow points, artillery bolt points, and slingers' pellets--items that were, in short, literally meant to be thrown away. Other items were easily worn out, bent, or broken. A more dramatic example of the army's profligate ways with metal lay in the fact that each retiring legionary by custom kept his own armor. This meant that the army of the western frontier required some 4,000 new suits of armor annually, simply to replace those lost to retirement.
5.
H. Russell Robinson, The Armour of Imperial Rome, p. 183, states that legionaries depicted on Trajan's Column appear to be wearing body armor made of metal strips and plates. An iron-bound wooden chest was found at Corbridge under the floor of a building close to the headquarters. The chest contained tools, nails, bundles of javelin heads, a sword scabbard, and a quantity of iron armor. See also J. B. Campbell, "Roman Body Armour in the First Century A.D.," Congress of Roman Frontier Studies: 1969, p. 82.
6.
Robin Birley, Vindolanda: A Roman Frontier Post on Hadrian's Wall, p. 130, includes among the iron items found at Vindolanda ballista bolts, a sickle, two heavy stone hammers (one weighing 14.5 pounds), knives, needles, four keys, thirteen stylus pens, a razor, meat hooks, and a multitude of nails, varying from small studs to others considerably longer. N. S. Angus, G. T. Brown, and H. F. Cleere , "The Iron Nails from the Roman Legionary Fortress at Inchtuthil, Perthshire," Journal of Iron and Steel Industry 200 ( 1962):956-968, discuss the three-quarters of a million nails discovered at the first century A.D. legionary fort at Inchtuthil. See also Geza Alföldy, Noricum, p. 109.
7.
Strabo, Geographica 4:5. Tacitus, Agricola 12, states that Britain's wealth in gold, silver, and other metals made it worth conquering. See also Pliny, Naturalis Historia 24:17.
8.
Oliver Davies, Roman Mines in Europe, p. 163. See also Sheppard Sunderland Frere , Britannia: A History of Roman Britain, p. 283.
9.
H. D. H. Elkington, "The Mendip Lead Industry," in The Roman West Country, ed. Keith Branigan and P. J. Fowler, pp. 183-184, states that pre-Roman

-169-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Western Frontiers of Imperial Rome
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Maps vii
  • Preface ix
  • I- The Edge of Empire 3
  • II- The Frontier Takes Shape 13
  • Notes 35
  • III- Feeding the Army- The Agrarian Settlement 42
  • Notes 70
  • IV- Pastoral Pursuits- Ranching and Grazing on the Frontier 77
  • Notes 96
  • V- Trading on and beyond the Frontier 101
  • Notes 122
  • VI- The Towns and Cities of the Frontier 127
  • Notes 147
  • VII- The Growth of Industry 152
  • Notes 169
  • VIII- The "Romanization" of the Frontier 172
  • Notes 191
  • IX- The Gods and Goddesses of the Frontier 196
  • Notes 212
  • X- Final Thoughts 216
  • Notes 224
  • Chronology of the Roman Frontier 225
  • Glossary 235
  • Selected Bibliography 249
  • Index 267
  • About the Authors 277
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 278

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.