Amtrak: The History and Politics of a National Railroad

By David C. Nice | Go to book overview

7
The Balance Sheet

In recent years scholars and practitioners have produced a virtual torrent of literature on the intermingled issues of governmental efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity. Interest in these issues has been generated by rising government costs, inflation and other economic problems, revenue scarcity, and public cynicism regarding governmental performance. Studies have emerged that offer recommendations for improving efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity, 1 although some observers are skeptical of many diagnoses of public sector operations and proposals for change. 2

Productivity is critical to a nation's standard of living and is one of the most central of all management tasks. 3 It typically includes both efficiency and effectiveness. Most observers regard efficiency as the ratio of benefits to costs; effectiveness represents output or achievement relative to some goal or performance standard. 4 Improving performance, therefore, requires increasing the ratio of benefits to costs and/or increasing progress toward some goal. Benefits, costs, and performance standards are not always easily measured and are sometimes controversial, 5 but those difficulties are not universal. This chapter will analyze the financial performance of the Amtrak system over the years.

Certain approaches to industrial productivity have generally emphasized the amount or value of production relative to the amount of labor input. Analyses of agriculture, on the other hand, might focus on production relative to the amount of land under cultivation. Still other studies examine the relationship between production and capital equipment. Because a variety of factors may influence productivity, no single indicator of it is likely to be ideal. However, analyzing the total costs of producing a good or service provides an overall indication of productivity when compared to the amount or value of the good or service produced. 6

Amtrak provides a valuable test case for assessing productivity in several respects. First, a number of observers have charged that Amtrak does not provide benefits sufficient to justify its costs and that it is subsidized

-81-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Amtrak: The History and Politics of a National Railroad
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface ix
  • 1 - Creating Amtrak 1
  • Notes 12
  • 2 - Development: Building the System 15
  • Notes 28
  • 3 - Distribution: Who Gets Service? 31
  • Notes 42
  • 4 - The States: Reluctant Partners? 47
  • Notes 58
  • 5 - International Amtrak 61
  • Notes 69
  • 6 - Bringing Passengers on Board 71
  • Notes 78
  • 7 - The Balance Sheet 81
  • Notes 91
  • 8 - Amtrak: Worth the Cost? 93
  • Notes 103
  • Bibliography 107
  • Index 115
  • About the Book 119
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 119

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.