Western Enterprise in Far Eastern Economic Development: China and Japan

By G. C. Allen; Audrey G. Donnithorne | Go to book overview

CHAPTER VII WESTERN SHIPPING IN CHINA WATERS

IT has been shown in Chapter II that the expansion of Western commerce with China was from the beginning closely linked with the activities of foreign ships in Far Eastern waters. The links were not only those created by a mutual dependence of ships and trade, but at times they took the form of an integration of shipping and trading functions in the same firms. Both the East India Company and some of the merchant houses that succeeded to its empire were shipowners as well as traders, and their success in the buying and selling of goods was in a large measure dependent upon their capacity for organising the means of carriage over oceans and inland waters. The great shipping lines which, after the middle of the nineteenth century joined Europe and America with the Far East, generally owed their origins to the initiative of merchants, and some of them have retained associations with particular mercantile houses down to the present time. In the coastal and inland waters of China, the merchants' part in the inception and development of services was predominant.

In the early years of the modern era the ships that carried the cargoes between China and the West were sailing ships. This was, to later eyes, the romantic period when the great tea clippers made their easting and then raced home to London with each new season's crop. They survived until the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 conferred a decisive advantage on the steamers, since sailing ships were not allowed through it. By then, however, steamship companies had long been competing for the trans-ocean trade. The first of these was the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, which came into being after protracted negotiations among the interests concerned with Oriental trade and communications, namely the British Government, the East India Company, and the merchant houses of London, Liverpool and Calcutta. In 1840 the P. and O. agreed to conduct a regular service to India with the aid of annual subsidies from the British Government and the East India Company, and in 1844 it signed a contract with the former to carry mails between Suez and Hongkong. This led to the institution of a steamer service between Ceylon and Hongkong to connect with the monthly service from Suez to Calcutta, with the result that the time taken for mail between England and China was reduced from five months to eighty days. In 1850 the service was extended to Shanghai,

-123-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Western Enterprise in Far Eastern Economic Development: China and Japan
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 294

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.