International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview

and sounding board for over 40 years ( 1940-1989). According to Marlene Provost of the Public Administration Program at the University of Vermont, those who knew Dimock intimately attribute his success to the Dimocks' unique personal and professional relationship.

SARA ANN CONKLING


BIBLIOGRAPHY

The following represent some of the best of Dimock's timeless work in public administration:

Dimock, Marshall E., 1958. A Philosophy of Administration. New York: Harper and Brothers.

-----, 1959. Administrative Vitality. New York: Harper and Brothers.

-----, 1961. Business and Government. 4th ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

-----, 1991. "Crisis Management: Shoring Up America's Economy and Government". International Journal of Public Administration, vol. 14, no. 4: 499-762.

DIPLOMACY. The conduct of international relations by negotiation and other peaceful means (such as clarifying intentions and gathering information) that are either directly or indirectly, immediately or in due course, designed to promote negotiation. Diplomacy develops where power is dispersed and a shared culture facilitates communication. The foreign policy which diplomacy serves may, of course, be belligerent rather than peaceful, as when alliances are negotiated in preparation for war or cemented by diplomacy for its duration.

Diplomacy with recognizably modern features (most critically the immunity of the envoy) existed in the ancient world, the best early evidence of this being the archive of diplomatic correspondence of the Egyptian court in El-Amarna generated in the fourteenth century B.C.E. Records from Greece, India, and China dated roughly a thousand years later provide more copious evidence of familiar diplomatic forms, as do those from Europe in the Middle Ages. By this time, diplomacy had been placed principally in the hands of a nuncius or, with growing frequency after the late twelfth century, a plenipotentiary. The former was simply a "living letter" whereas the latter had full powers -- plena potestas -- to negotiate on behalf of and bind his principal, but both remained temporary envoys who were required to return home when their narrowly focused tasks were completed. It was not until the middle of the fifteenth century, in the relations between the city-states of Italy, that we find the origins of the most characteristic of all modern diplomatic practices: the resident embassy. (Though it should be noted that in ancient Greece a city-state might employ as a diplomatic representative and grant citizenship to a resident of a city with which it had to deal; such a person was known as a proxenos.)


The Origins and Development of the Resident Embassy

The resident ambassador, who did not of course altogether replace the temporary envoy, was a response to the intensification of diplomatic activity in Italy in the fifteenth century. This made the financial costs of using ad hoc missions increasingly hard to bear and, while travel remained slow and hazardous, their practical drawbacks increasingly obvious. However, the appearance of the permanent mission also signalled a new awareness, clearly expressed in the political testament of Cardinal Richelieu ( 1585-1642), first minister of the French king, Louis XIII, that diplomacy functions best when it is a continuous rather than episodic process: maximum familiarity with local conditions is achieved, openings to develop a policy are more readily grasped, and diplomatic initiatives can be launched without attracting the attention characteristically accompanying the arrival of a special envoy.

Developing in Italy, the resident embassy spread northwards over the Alps and became the key mode of diplomatic activity until the early twentieth century. Despite its origins, it was described as the "French system of diplomacy" in The Evolution of Diplomatic Method ( 1954) by Harold Nicolson, probably the most well-known writer on diplomacy in the English language. This description was legitimate because it was the French who cleaned up and professionalized the Italian inheritance during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; French writers, notably François de Callières ( 1645-1717), who were the most important theorists of this diplomatic system; and the French language which replaced Latin as its lingua franca.

In the first half of the twentieth century the French system came to be known more commonly as the "old diplomacy." In addition to major reliance on permanent embassies with special immunities from local jurisdiction, its characteristic features were secrecy, elaborate ceremonial, careful protocol, honesty, and -- at least by this time -- professionalism. Secret negotiation prevented the making of concessions from being sabotaged by foreign friends and domestic constituences before they could be presented alongside any gains. Ceremonial was used to burnish the prestige of a prince, flatter allies, and solemnize any agreements which might be reached. Protocol brought order to diplomatic encounters. Honesty made it more likely that agreements would be negotiated on the basis of a true estimate of interests and that states would be regarded as worthy negotiating partners in the future. For its part, the professionalization of diplomacy, which was not seriously under way, even in France, until well into the nineteenth century, eventually broadened the recruitment of diplomats and improved their training. Their classic manual, which in revised form is still in print, was published in 1917 as A Guide to Diplomatic Practice by the distinguished British diplomat, Sir Ernest Satow ( 1843-1929).

-679-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Editorial Board *
  • Title Page *
  • D 627
  • Bibliography 627
  • Bibliography 630
  • Bibliography 631
  • Bibliography 633
  • Bibliography 635
  • Bibliography 635
  • Bibliography 639
  • Bibliography 643
  • Bibliography 645
  • Bibliography 647
  • Bibliography 651
  • Bibliography 654
  • Bibliography 656
  • Bibliography 662
  • Bibliography 665
  • Bibliography 666
  • Bibliography 669
  • Bibliography 674
  • Bibliography 676
  • Bibliography 677
  • Bibliography 679
  • Bibliography 682
  • Bibliography 684
  • Bibliography 684
  • Bibliography 687
  • Bibliography 689
  • Bibliography 690
  • Bibliography 692
  • Bibliography 694
  • Bibliography 695
  • Bibliography 700
  • Bibliography 701
  • Bibliography 704
  • Bibliography 706
  • Bibliography 706
  • Bibliography 707
  • Bibliography 708
  • Bibliography 711
  • Bibliography 714
  • Bibliography 720
  • Bibliography 723
  • Bibliography 728
  • Bibliography 728
  • E 729
  • Bibliography 730
  • Bibliography 734
  • Bibliography 736
  • Bibliography 738
  • Bibliography 741
  • Bibliography 745
  • Bibliography 746
  • Bibliography 747
  • Bibliography 752
  • Bibliography 753
  • Bibliography 756
  • Bibliography 763
  • Bibliography 764
  • Bibliography 768
  • Bibliography 772
  • Bibliography 773
  • Bibliography 777
  • Bibliography 785
  • Bibliography 789
  • Bibliography 790
  • Bibliography 793
  • Bibliography 795
  • Bibliography 802
  • Bibliography 803
  • Bibliography 806
  • Bibliography 808
  • Bibliography 818
  • Bibliography 822
  • Bibliography 824
  • Bibliography 825
  • Bibliography 827
  • Bibliography 832
  • Bibliography 837
  • Bibliography 841
  • Bibliography 844
  • Bibliography 852
  • F 853
  • Bibliography 854
  • Bibliography 857
  • Bibliography 861
  • Bibliography 862
  • Bibliography 865
  • References 875
  • Bibliography 881
  • Bibliography 883
  • Bibliography 884
  • Bibliography 887
  • Bibliography 891
  • Bibliography 895
  • Bibliography 898
  • Bibliography 901
  • Bibliography 905
  • Bibliography 906
  • Bibliography 913
  • Bibliography 914
  • Bibliography 915
  • Bibliography 917
  • Bibliography 921
  • Bibliography 922
  • Bibliography 923
  • Bibliography 927
  • Bibliography 928
  • Bibliography 935
  • Bibliography 938
  • Bibliography 941
  • Bibliography 944
  • Bibliography 945
  • Bibliography 947
  • Bibliography 949
  • Bibliography 950
  • Bibliography 952
  • Bibliography 957
  • Bibliography 960
  • G 961
  • Bibliography 962
  • Bibliography 964
  • Bibliography 968
  • Bibliography 972
  • Bibliography 973
  • Bibliography 979
  • Bibliography 982
  • Bibliography 983
  • Bibliography 984
  • Bibliography 989
  • Bibliography 990
  • Bibliography 993
  • Bibliography 996
  • Bibliography 998
  • Bibliography 1002
  • Bibliography 1006
  • Bibliography 1007
  • Bibliography 1010
  • Bibliography 1014
  • Bibliography 1017
  • Bibliography 1018
  • Bibliography 1019
  • Bibliography 1023
  • Bibliography 1025
  • Bibliography 1030
  • Bibliography 1031
  • Bibliography 1035
  • H 1037
  • Bibliography 1039
  • Bibliograhy 1042
  • Bibliography 1046
  • Bibliography 1053
  • Bibliography 1058
  • Bibliography 1059
  • Bibliography 1061
  • Bibliography 1065
  • Bibliography 1069
  • Bibliography 1071
  • Bibliography 1072
  • Bibliography 1077
  • Bibliography 1078
  • Bibliography 1080
  • Bibliography 1080
  • Bibliography 1082
  • I 1083
  • Bibliography 1086
  • Bibliography 1087
  • Bibliography 1091
  • Bibliography 1093
  • Bibliography 1097
  • Bibliography 1098
  • Bibliography 1100
  • Bibliography 1101
  • Bibliography 1105
  • Bibliography 1109
  • Bibliography 1110
  • Bibliography 1115
  • Bibliography 1120
  • Bibliography 1126
  • Bibliography 1129
  • Bibliography 1130
  • Bibliography 1133
  • Bibliography 1136
  • Bibliography 1138
  • Bibliography 1139
  • Bibliography 1141
  • Bibliography 1144
  • Bibliography 1145
  • Bibliography 1151
  • Bibliography 1154
  • Bibliography 1156
  • Bibliography 1159
  • Bibliography 1161
  • Bibliography 1167
  • Bibliography 1181
  • Bibliography 1191
  • Bibliography 1196
  • Bibliography 1198
  • Bibliography 1200
  • Bibliography 1201
  • J 1207
  • Bibliography 1210
  • Bibliography 1210
  • Bibliography 1219
  • Bibliography 1220
  • Bibliography 1222
  • Bibliography 1224
  • Bibliography 1224
  • Bibliography 1228
  • Bibliography 1233
  • Bibliography 1236
  • Bibliography 1238
  • K 1239
  • Bibliography 1240
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 1240

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.