International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview

increase in litigation. This conclusion is drawn from the idea that with the greater number of testing policy restrictions on civil liberties that exist, or may come to exist, come greater opportunities for challenge by employees and civil liberty activists.

Further research needs to explore the influence of collective bargaining upon drug testing policies and processes by which drug testing policies are formulated as well as comparison with alcohol testing. Finally, although a hotly debated issue, it is concluded that the evolution of drug testing policies and programs is more frequently determined by the political and moral perceptions of congressional and bureaucratic policymakers rather than directives from the judicial system.

T. ZANE REEVES


BIBLIOGRAPHY

American Federation of Government Employees v. Sullivan, 787 F.Supp. 255 D.D.C. ( 1992).

Bell v. Thornburgh, 493 U.S. 1056 ( 1990).

Bennett, Nathan, Terry C. Blum, and Paul M. Roman, 1994. "Employee Attitudes Toward Drug Testing". Employee Rights and Responsibilities Journal, vol. 7, no. 2.

Civil Rights Act, 42 USC § 1983.

Executive Order 12564, Drug-Free Federal Workplace, 1986.

Fine, Cory R., 1992. "Video Tests Are the New Frontier in Drug Detection". Personnel Journal, 71((6): 148-161.

Green, A., 1991. "Unions Seek Alternatives to Random Drug Testing". AFL-CIO News (July 22) 9.

Gordon, J., 1987. "Drug Testing as a Productivity Booster?" Training, vol. 3: 22-33.

Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 ( 1965).

Hamilton, William A., 1985. "Drug Testing of Florida's Public Employees: When May a Public Employer Require Urinalysis?" Florida State University Review, vol. 15: 101-121.

Harmon v. Thornburgh, 878 F2d 484, D.C. Cir. 1 ( 1989).

Mazaroff, Stanley and Jeffrey Ayers, 1989. Controlling Drug Abuse in the Workplace: The Legal Groundrules. Legal report. American Society for Personnel Administration.

Montagne, Michael, Carol B. Pugh and Joseph L. Fink III, 1988. "Testing for Drug Use, Part 2: Legal, Social and Ethical Concerns". American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 45 (7): 1509-1522.

Muczyk, J. P., and B. P. Heshizer, 1988. "Mandatory DrugTesting: Managing the Latest Pandora's Box". Business Horizons (March-April) 14-22.

Murphy, K., G. Thornton III, and K. Prue, 1990. "Influence of Joab Characteristics on the Acceptability of Employee Drug Testing". Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 76:447-453.

National Treasury Employees Union, et al. v. Von Raab, 489 U.S. 656, 109 S. Ct. ( 1989).

Nigro, Lloyd G. and Felix A. Nigro, 1994. The New Public Personnel Administration. 4th ed. Itasca, IL: F.E. Peacock Publishers, Inc.

Normand, J., S. Salyards, and J. Mahoney, 1990. "An Evaluation of Preemployment Drug Testing". Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 75:625-639.

Ogborn, Michael J., 1987. "Substance Abuse Testing in the Public Sector". South Dakota Law Review, 32(2):252-263.

P.A. Times, 1994. "Local Governments for Drug Testing". (May 1) 3.

Railway Labor Executives Association v. Burnley, 839 F2d 575, 583, 9th Cir. ( 1988).

Redeker, James R. and Jonathan A. Segal, 1980. "Labor Personnel Issue, Trends and Management Techniques". American Management Association, vol. 72.

Redeker, James R. and Jonathan A. Segal, 1989b. "Profits Low? Your Employees May Be High!" Personnel, vol. 66:72-78.

Sandia National Laboratories, 1993. "Labor Relations Conference for Managers". (April 1).

Sante, Mike and Donna Shaw, 1990. "Lab Reports Big Decline in Workers Failing Drug Tests". Business Outlook (July 16) 3.

Segal, Jonathan A., 1992. "To Test or Not to Test". HR Magazine, vol. 4:40-43.

Skinner v. Railway Labor Executives Association, 489 U.S. 602 ( 1989).

Taylor v. O'Grady, 888 F.2d 1189, 1196, 7th Cir. ( 1989)

Thompson, Frank J., Norma M. Riccucci, and Carolyn Ban, 1991. Drug Testing in the Federal Workplace: An Instrumental and Symbolic Assessment. Public Administration Review, 51(6):(November-December) 507-516.

United States Department of Federal Highway Administration Transportation , 1994. Alcohol and Drug Rules: An Overview. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

United States Office of Personnel Management, 1986. Establishing a Drug-Free Workplace. Federal Personnel Manual. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Walters, J., 1989. Presenting an Arbitration Case Involving Allegation of Drug Abuse. Paper and Drug Testing Policy Statement of the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME), AFL-CIO, presented at the AFSCME Lawyers Conference, Phoenix, AZ (October).

Zeese, K., 1990. "Drug Testing Here to Stay". George Mason University Law Review, vol. 12:545.

DUAL-CAREER COUPLES. A situation in which two adults both pursue a career and maintain a family life. These arrangements include unmarried, as well as the more traditional married, partnerships, and they encompass both heterosexual and homosexual relationships. They are distinguished from a variety of other types of situations -- single wage earner, single parent, and dualearner arrangements -- in that the two individuals who are involved in a family relationship simultaneously pursue their own professional careers.


Origins and History

Dual-career couples are a fairly recent phenomenon in contemporary society; however, their size and importance have grown steadily throughout the second half of the twentieth century. There are three main reasons for the rise of dual-career couples in the modern workforce. First, there is the obvious economic stimulant. Two adults can earn more money and attain a higher total family income

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