International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview

hospital attendants and orderlies, nursing-home aides, taxi drivers, secretaries, hairdressers, auto mechanics, sellers of residential real estate, flight attendants, physical therapists, and security guards. In addition to being reliable, these workers are expected to have a pleasant demeanor. About 30 percent of the U.S. labor force worked in in-person services in 1990. These jobs are not exportable, and they are not typically well paid.

Symbolic-analytic services include all problemsolving, problem-identifying, and strategic-brokering activities and involve manipulation of data, words, and oral and visual images. These activities can be traded and sold worldwide, so U.S. providers must compete with foreign providers, even in the U.S. market. Jobs in this category include research scientists, design engineers, software engineers, public relations executives, investment bankers, lawyers, real estate developers, accountants, management consultants, financial consultants, tax consultants, energy consultants, management information specialists, organization development specialists, strategic planners, corporate headhunters, and system analysts. Other symbolic jobs are advertising executives, marketing strategists, art directors, architects, cinematographers, film editors, production designers, publishers, writers and editors, journalists, musicians, television and film producers, and university professors. Symbolic analysts are typically well educated, work in flat organizations and teams, and have incomes that vary, depending on the quality of their problem solutions. Those who are globally competitive have gained an increasing share of income and wealth. With education, a greater proportion of the labor force can move into the symbolic analytic category, so that in the future, employment policy and education policy may become one and the same.

MARCIA LYNN WHICKER


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ehrenberg, Ronald G., and Robert S. Smith, 1994. Modern Labor Economics: Theory and Public Policy. 5th ed. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers.

Louchheim, Katie, ed., 1983. The Making of the New Deal. The Insiders Speak. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Reich, Robert B., 1991. The Work of Nations. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Samuelson, Paul A., and William D. Nordhaus, 1995. Economics. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Whicker, Marcia Lynn, and Raymond A. Moore; 1988. Making America Competitive: Policies for a Global Future. New York: Praeger.

ENABLING ACT. A statute empowering an entity such as a corporation or governmental unit to peform a function. Enabling legislation, through delegation, also has enabled or authorized administrative agencies to exercise vast regulatory powers contributing to the rise of the administrative state. In the governmental context of the United States, enabling acts usually refer to state legislatures empowering units of local government to act. The relationship of local government to state government is one in which the state governments hold all the power. They, through their constitutions or state statutes, delegate some of that power to other units within the state. Thus, local governments traditionally have been dependent upon the states for any of their authority to deal with local problems. The dependency was articulated by Iowa Supreme Court Justice John F. Dillon in an 1868 court case. The doctrine that municipal governments are creations of the state legislatures and thus derive all their powers and existence from the legislatures has become known as Dillon's Rule.

As a result of Dillon's Rule and its acceptance by courts across the country, local governments were very carefully controlled by state statute. Many court decisions took a very rigid view, thus limiting local governments to only those powers explicitly extended to them by state legislatures. Some courts, however, were a little more flexible in examining the needs for local governments to conduct their business. Nonetheless, restrictions on what types of taxes a municipality may impose, whether or not municipalities may enter into contracts with one another, and even what personnel policies they could adopt were types of controls imposed by state legislation.

In most states, the realities of these restrictions hampered local governments from dealing with their problems, especially as society became more complex and problems became more difficult to deal with. As a result, the concept of home rule emerged and is granted in all states, although not to all local governments. Most state statutes or constitutional provisions governing home rule limit it to the larger local governments, mostly municipalities. Some states also extend it to county governments, but many do not. Home rule permits the local government to govern itself and exercise whatever powers are necessary to do so. There are general limits, such as the local government's policies cannot conflict with state law; and restrictions applied to all local governments by state statute still exist. The effect, however, has been to grant much more flexibility to local governments. Local control over what revenue sources are available, however, has still been limited in most states. Thus, for example, municipalities are prohibited from levying income taxes in almost all the states.

Home rule is a general enabling act that provides greater autonomy to the local government to resolve its own problems. It has the advantage of allowing more targeted and probably quicker solutions to problems. Home rule also frees the state legislature so that it can spend its time on statewide issues rather than having to be bogged

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International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2
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