International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview

for tax cuts grow louder? What are the public policy issues surrounding concerns about a defective or failed economy in which the underclass grows larger and middle-class incomes fall, and a smaller percentage of the population controls a greater percentage of the total wealth of the nation? Public managers who would be leaders need to familiarize themselves with these and the many other issues surrounding the nonprofit sector in their domain, in order to be responsive to the rapidly changing needs and demands of those organizations and the people that they serve.



Bennett, James T., and Thomas J. DiLorenzo, 1989. Unfair Competition: The Profits of Nonprofits. Lanham, MD: Hamilton.

Carver, John, 1990. Boards That Make a Difference: A New Design for Leadership in Nonprofit and Public Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Connor, Tracy Daniel, ed., 1988. The Nonprofit Organization Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Cooper, Terry L., 1990. The Responsible Administrator: An Approach to Etbicsfor the Administrative Role. 3d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Covey, Stephen, 1992. Principle-Centered Leadership. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Drucker, Peter F., 1990. Managing the Nonprofit Organization. New York: HarperCollins.

Gardener, John W., 1990. "Leadership and the Nonprofit Sector". Working paper No. 10. Institute for Nonprofit Organization Management. San Francisco: University of San Francisco.

Glaser, John S., 1994. The United Way Scandal. New York: Wiley.

Hauerwas, Stanley M., 1981. A Community of Character. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

Hunter, James Davison, 1991. Culture Wars: The Struggle to Define America. New York: Basic Books.

Jeavons, Thomas H., 1994. "Ethics in Nonprofit Management: Creating a Culture of Integrity". In Robert D. Herman, ed., The Jossey-Bass Handbook of Nonprofit Leadership and Management. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 184-207.

Lohman, Roger A., 1992. The Commons: New Perspectives on Non- profit Organization and Voluntaiy Action. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

O'Neill, Michael, 1990. Ethics in Nonprofit Management: A Collection of Cases. San Francisco: University of San Francisco.

Schein, Edgar H., 1992. Organizational Culture and Leadership. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Smith, David Horton, 1995. Entrusted: The Moral Responsibilities of Trusteeship. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Waitley, Denis, 1995. Empires of the Mind. New York: William Morrow.

Wheatley, Margaret, 1992. Leadership and the New Science. SanFrancisco: Barret-Koehler.

Wolf, Thomas A., 1990. Managing A Nonprofit Organization. New York: Prentice-Hall.

EURATOM. The name by which the European Atomic Energy Community is commonly known. This supranational organization was established by the Treaty of Rome, which was signed in 1957 and came into operation in 1958, together with the European Economic Community (EEC). The new organization was created by the founding member states of the European Coal and Steel Community, namely, France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. The Rome Treaties of 1957 were an effort to relaunch the process of European integration after the failure of the proposed European Defense Community in 1954.

For Jean Monnet, who drafted the Schuman Plan, which led to the European Coal and Steel Community, and who was also the spiritual father of the Rome Treaty, Euratom was the more important of the two new organizations. It presented an important economic sector in which integration was desirable and could lead to "spillover, " that is, would prompt further integration into other policy areas. The emergence of Euratom can only be understood in the context of its time: the growing realization that fossil-based fuel was destined to run sooner or later led European states to seek alternative sources of energy, including atomic or nuclear energy. Moreover, Monnet believed that a collective European approach to research and development in nuclear energy could forestall the emergence in France of its own nuclear bomb. This aim was supported by the U.S. government, which was not only concerned with safeguarding export opportunities in Europe but also eager to stem the proliferation of nuclear weapons.

The proposal to establish Euratom was accepted by the French National Assembly on the basis that, first, France could expect to benefit from the technological expertise of the other member states; second, France could gain access to the high-quality uranium deposits of the Belgian Congo, now Zaire; third, France could expect to be a net beneficiary of the Euratom budget since the French nuclear research program amounted to two-thirds of research of all the member states combined; fourth, the creation of Euratom with its supranational institutional structure meant that West Germany would not develop a national nuclear industry; finally, the French won an important concession during the negotiations that led to the Rome Treaty, namely, that in cases in which national security was concerned, it would not be obligatory to exchange technological information and expertise. Alternately, West Germany was less in favor of Euratom than of the EEC, fearing the adverse effects on its coal-producing regions, such as the Rhineland, of which Konrad Adenauer was a native. The French, however, were prepared to accept the EEC and its proposed customs union and common market only in return for Euratom.

The objective of Euratom was to control and direct the development of a European nuclear energy industry and, ultimately, a common nuclear energy policy. The institutional structure of the new organization was based on that of the European Coal and Steel Community. A new commission and a new council of ministers was created. The


Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Cite this page

Cited page

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)


1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

Cited page

Bookmark this page
International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents



Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 1240

matching results for page

Cited passage

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.