International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview

TABLE I. FEDERAL RESERVE DISTRICT BANKS AND BRANCHES
District Federal Reserve District Bank Branches
1 Boston, MA
2 New York, NY Buffalo, NY
3 Philadelphia, PA
4 Cleveland, OH Cincinnati, OH
Pittsburgh, PA
5 Richmond, VA Baltimore, MD
Charlotte, NC
6 Atlanta, GA Birmingham, AL
Jacksonville, FL
Miami, FL
Nashville, TN
New Orleans, LA
7 Chicago, IL Detroit, MI
8 St. Louis, MO Little Rock, AR
Louisville, KY
Memphis, TN
9 Minneapolis, MN Helena, MT
10 Kansas City, MO Denver, CO
Oklahoma City, OK
Omaha, NE
11 Dallas, TX El Paso, TX
Houston, TX
San Antonio, TX
12 San Francisco, CA Los Angeles, CA
Portland, OR
Salt Lake City, UT
Seattle, WA
SOURCE: Compiled by author.

Board of Governors must report to Congress on its policies, and the minutes of FOMC meetings are published with a one-month lag. Finally, the chair of the Board of Governors meets regularly with the Secretary of the Treasury and the chair of the President's Council of Economic Advisers. Thus, the Fed is independent but not isolated from the executive and legislative branches.

WILLIAM R. GATES


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, 1974. The Federal Reserve System: Purposes and Functions. 6th ed. Washington D.C.: GPO.

Coit, Charles, 1941. The Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond. New York: Columbia University Press.

FEDERALISM . A genera of governmental forms that use a variety of legal, organizational, and political techniques to share governmental authority in such a way as to provide for the pursuit of national goals while maintaining the political integrity of diverse, locally situated populations.

Federalism has not been a common or popular form of government. Local jurisdictions, in most countries and for much of the world's history, have been subordinate to the authority and decisions of the central government. However, with the decline of monarchy and the rise of republics, federal forms of government have been adopted by more and more nations ( Elazar 1987; Riker 1993). Much of the current appeal of federalism derives from the inflexibility of unitary forms of government to accommodate the complex population diversities in modern nationstates. Today, in the late 1990s, most nations are composed of many groups of people who differ by culture, ethnicity, language, race, religion, or tribe. This variation based on personal attributes is compounded by the spatial distribution of the different population groupings within a given country's territory. Because persons and places are intimately interrelated, many if not most political issues are fought across territories as well as across the more usual cleavages of economics and partisanship ( Tarrow 1978). In contrast to the rigid pyramid model of the unitary nationstate, which presumes a single people and its culture, the federal model of government offers what Werlin ( 1970, pp. 185-209) termed an "elasticity of control." Federalism permits the citizens of a country to design (and alter over time) institutional forms so that authority and resources are shared in a manner that maintains the political integrity of groups or places ( Friedrich 1925; Elazar 1968; Riker 1975). Simply put, federal forms of government make possible the achievement of national unity without the necessity of eliminating diversity.

Whether one examines the various definitions and the conditions that constitute a federal state, the origins and historical development of federalism, the number and types of federal arrangements and nations, or the theories of federalism, substantial disagreement and debate confronts the contemporary student of government. It is not possible in this entry to go into extensive detail on every point of disagreement. Readers out of necessity, some choices must be made about the topics covered and the issues reviewed. Readers are strongly encouraged to turn to this entry's Bibliography for more extensive elucidation of the many details and debates.


Origins and Historical Development

Scholars around the world generally mark the origin of modern federal government as the 1787 Constitution of the United States of America (e.g., Wheare 1953; Mello 1960; Dikshit 1975; Riker 1993). American federalism is a complex set of separated institutions and intertwined prin

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