International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview

employers of greater workforce productivity. There are several variations of work hours in the alternative work schedules, including job sharing, part-time work, compressed work weeks, and flextime. Probably the most popular of these is flextime.

Flextime, dating from the 1960s, has been a constantly increasing trend for American workers. The federal workforce was introduced to flextime on a large-scale basis by the Federal Employees Flexible and Compressed Work Schedule Act of 1978. Although flextime can be implemented with some variations, there are usually some consistent features. First, the "band width" of the workday -- the time between the beginning of the workday -- and the end of the workday -- will usually increase for the organization. The typical hours of operation may change from 8:00 A.M. until 5:00 P.M. (with an hour for lunch) to 6:00 A.M. until 7:00 P.M. Some employees will come to work earlier and leave earlier -- for instance 6:00 A.M to 3:00 P.M. Some employees will choose to come to work later, around 10:00 A.M., and stay later, to about 7:00 P.M. There are some other slight variations possible, such as 7:00 A.M. to 4:00 P.M., and half hour variations if 30 minutes rather than an hour is allowed for lunch.

Second, there is commonly a period of time during each workday, called "core time," when all employees under this flextime system are expected to be at work. This allows supervisors time for needed coordination of tasks, time for meetings, and time for general tending to the details of work. The typical core time would be 10:00 A.M. until 3:00 P.M.

Two other features of flextime systems are common. There should be someone designated as the overall coordinator who will be responsible as a contact person and as a problem-solver. Finally, some decisions must be made regarding how often employees are allowed to change their selection of flexible hours. Can this be done daily, weekly, monthly, or yearly?

Studies indicate that flextime has much to offer both the employee and the organization. Improved employees' morale, decreased tardiness, more "family friendliness," decreased absenteeism, less traffic congestion, and decreased employee turnover are commonly cited benefits.

Flextime does have some drawbacks. Some managers complain about the increasing difficulty in coordinating group activities, work scheduling, and the unavailability of employees at certain times. Some managers also perceive a decreased level of productivity among employees during hours when supervisors are not present at work. Finally, increased paperwork problems arise when keeping track of employee work hours.

Despite these problems, flextime appears to be an option that will be a permanent fixture of workplaces for decades to come. Given the increase in working women, dual-career couples, and the advantages to organizations of better accommodating workers' family needs, flextime appears to offer great potential in the workplace of today and the future.

ROBERT H. ELLIOTT


BIBLIOGRAPHY

McGuire, Jean B., and Joseph R. Liro, 1986. "Flexible Work Schedules, Work Attitudes, and Perceptions of Productivity". Public Personnel Management, vol. 15 (Spring): 65-72.

Rubin, Richard S., 1979. "Flextime Implementation in the Publie Sector". Public Administration Review, vol. 39 (May): 277- 282.

FOG OF WAR. The condition of administrative confusion experienced in battle, arising from the conflicting information and unplanned developments intrinsic to the conduct of war. Although originally a military concept, it now has much wider application.

As the early- nineteenth-century military philosopher, Carl von Clausewitz wrote, "Information . . . is the foundation of all our ideas and actions." For those given command and leadership in war, Clausewitz ( 1962) believed that the problem was "a greater part of the information obtained in War is contradictory, a still great part is false, and by far the greatest part is of a doubtful character" (p. 75). Accordingly, instead of operating in a clear-cut situation in which all salient information was observable and known, military commanders would normally expect to find themselves in a permanent fog of uncertainty, and would have to accommodate themselves to that unavoidable fact.

Even though some of the responsibility for this uncertainty can be directly found in deficiencies in the collection, transmission, processing, and exploitation of information, Clausewitz believed that much derives from the nature of war itself. War is the province of danger, fear, fatigue, exertion, and privation; in such circumstances, it was considered natural for those involved to make mistakes, and in particular, human timidity being what it is, to exaggerate the extent of the surrounding dangers. As such, information problems play a major part in creating that friction, which means that "everything is very simple in War, but the simplest thing is difficult" ( Clausewitz 1962, p. 77).

The experience of the Royal Navy in its conduct of the Battle of Jutland on 31 May 1916 illustrates Clausewitz's point exactly. During that battle, the British fleet under Admiral John Jellicoe had a significant advantage in quantitative terms, comprised excellent equipment and first-rate personnel, and for some hours was barely 10 miles from its German adversary. Sometimes, in fact, it was between the German fleet and the base to which Admiral Rheinhard Scheer, its commander in chief, wanted quite desperately to return.

Nonetheless, Admiral Jellicoe's capacity to inflict a decisive defeat on the Germans was ruined, first, by inaccu

-914-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Editorial Board *
  • Title Page *
  • D 627
  • Bibliography 627
  • Bibliography 630
  • Bibliography 631
  • Bibliography 633
  • Bibliography 635
  • Bibliography 635
  • Bibliography 639
  • Bibliography 643
  • Bibliography 645
  • Bibliography 647
  • Bibliography 651
  • Bibliography 654
  • Bibliography 656
  • Bibliography 662
  • Bibliography 665
  • Bibliography 666
  • Bibliography 669
  • Bibliography 674
  • Bibliography 676
  • Bibliography 677
  • Bibliography 679
  • Bibliography 682
  • Bibliography 684
  • Bibliography 684
  • Bibliography 687
  • Bibliography 689
  • Bibliography 690
  • Bibliography 692
  • Bibliography 694
  • Bibliography 695
  • Bibliography 700
  • Bibliography 701
  • Bibliography 704
  • Bibliography 706
  • Bibliography 706
  • Bibliography 707
  • Bibliography 708
  • Bibliography 711
  • Bibliography 714
  • Bibliography 720
  • Bibliography 723
  • Bibliography 728
  • Bibliography 728
  • E 729
  • Bibliography 730
  • Bibliography 734
  • Bibliography 736
  • Bibliography 738
  • Bibliography 741
  • Bibliography 745
  • Bibliography 746
  • Bibliography 747
  • Bibliography 752
  • Bibliography 753
  • Bibliography 756
  • Bibliography 763
  • Bibliography 764
  • Bibliography 768
  • Bibliography 772
  • Bibliography 773
  • Bibliography 777
  • Bibliography 785
  • Bibliography 789
  • Bibliography 790
  • Bibliography 793
  • Bibliography 795
  • Bibliography 802
  • Bibliography 803
  • Bibliography 806
  • Bibliography 808
  • Bibliography 818
  • Bibliography 822
  • Bibliography 824
  • Bibliography 825
  • Bibliography 827
  • Bibliography 832
  • Bibliography 837
  • Bibliography 841
  • Bibliography 844
  • Bibliography 852
  • F 853
  • Bibliography 854
  • Bibliography 857
  • Bibliography 861
  • Bibliography 862
  • Bibliography 865
  • References 875
  • Bibliography 881
  • Bibliography 883
  • Bibliography 884
  • Bibliography 887
  • Bibliography 891
  • Bibliography 895
  • Bibliography 898
  • Bibliography 901
  • Bibliography 905
  • Bibliography 906
  • Bibliography 913
  • Bibliography 914
  • Bibliography 915
  • Bibliography 917
  • Bibliography 921
  • Bibliography 922
  • Bibliography 923
  • Bibliography 927
  • Bibliography 928
  • Bibliography 935
  • Bibliography 938
  • Bibliography 941
  • Bibliography 944
  • Bibliography 945
  • Bibliography 947
  • Bibliography 949
  • Bibliography 950
  • Bibliography 952
  • Bibliography 957
  • Bibliography 960
  • G 961
  • Bibliography 962
  • Bibliography 964
  • Bibliography 968
  • Bibliography 972
  • Bibliography 973
  • Bibliography 979
  • Bibliography 982
  • Bibliography 983
  • Bibliography 984
  • Bibliography 989
  • Bibliography 990
  • Bibliography 993
  • Bibliography 996
  • Bibliography 998
  • Bibliography 1002
  • Bibliography 1006
  • Bibliography 1007
  • Bibliography 1010
  • Bibliography 1014
  • Bibliography 1017
  • Bibliography 1018
  • Bibliography 1019
  • Bibliography 1023
  • Bibliography 1025
  • Bibliography 1030
  • Bibliography 1031
  • Bibliography 1035
  • H 1037
  • Bibliography 1039
  • Bibliograhy 1042
  • Bibliography 1046
  • Bibliography 1053
  • Bibliography 1058
  • Bibliography 1059
  • Bibliography 1061
  • Bibliography 1065
  • Bibliography 1069
  • Bibliography 1071
  • Bibliography 1072
  • Bibliography 1077
  • Bibliography 1078
  • Bibliography 1080
  • Bibliography 1080
  • Bibliography 1082
  • I 1083
  • Bibliography 1086
  • Bibliography 1087
  • Bibliography 1091
  • Bibliography 1093
  • Bibliography 1097
  • Bibliography 1098
  • Bibliography 1100
  • Bibliography 1101
  • Bibliography 1105
  • Bibliography 1109
  • Bibliography 1110
  • Bibliography 1115
  • Bibliography 1120
  • Bibliography 1126
  • Bibliography 1129
  • Bibliography 1130
  • Bibliography 1133
  • Bibliography 1136
  • Bibliography 1138
  • Bibliography 1139
  • Bibliography 1141
  • Bibliography 1144
  • Bibliography 1145
  • Bibliography 1151
  • Bibliography 1154
  • Bibliography 1156
  • Bibliography 1159
  • Bibliography 1161
  • Bibliography 1167
  • Bibliography 1181
  • Bibliography 1191
  • Bibliography 1196
  • Bibliography 1198
  • Bibliography 1200
  • Bibliography 1201
  • J 1207
  • Bibliography 1210
  • Bibliography 1210
  • Bibliography 1219
  • Bibliography 1220
  • Bibliography 1222
  • Bibliography 1224
  • Bibliography 1224
  • Bibliography 1228
  • Bibliography 1233
  • Bibliography 1236
  • Bibliography 1238
  • K 1239
  • Bibliography 1240
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 1240

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.