International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview

terests of the industrialized Northern countries to provide the Third World with aid, on the straightforward grounds that not to do so would fail to develop export markets for the future. To be ungenerous would preclude subsequent profits.

The opposite argument developed as part of the 1990s critique of postwar economic paternalism by the "New Right". The case was made that aid had two deleterious consequences. The first was that it pandered to the disastrous ambitions of Asian, South American, and African leaders, encouraging them to develop showy projects that gratified their egos but impoverished their countries. The second was that, even where this did not occur, a climate of dependency was created and sustained that could only militate against self-sufficiency and economic self-respect in the medium and longer run. Rightly or wrongly, many Third World countries came to believe that this line of argument had outweighed the 1960s consensus and was most obviously to be seen in the policies of the UN financial agencies, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund. The conditions for finance offered by these institutions seemed to confirm to the poorer parts of the world that their conditions were of less importance than the maintenance of a stable international financial and trading environment.

Ironically, the West found considerable difficulty in responding to the demands for economic aid by the noncommunist successor states that formerly composed the Soviet Union. Having "won" the Cold War, the victors were now asked to bankroll the economic recovery of the East. No Western government was prepared to throw money at the problem; the lessons of irresponsible recipients who failed to develop sustainable infrastructure had been fully absorbed. The cruel jibe that the USSR was never more than "Upper Volta with missiles" became part and parcel of how the West reacted to the new strategic conditions.

The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development was created precisely to address these matters. Sadly, for the poorer states in the less-developed world, the perceived need to grant Russia and its neighbors a special place during the 1990s concentrated aid moneys within the Northern industrial region. Little was available to trickle down to the less-industrialized world. The general economic malaise of the global economy in the first half of the 1990s persuaded those responsible for statecraft that the long-run needs of the Third World could be safely, if with regret, delayed for consideration in due course.

PETER FOOT


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bauer, P. T., 1985. Reality and Rhetoric: Studies in Economic Development. London: Weidenfeld.

Brandt Commission, 1983. Common Crisis North-South: Cooperation for World Recovey. London: Pan Books.

Thomas, Caroline, 1987. In Search of Security: The Third World in International Relations. London: Harvester/Riennes.

Todaro, P. T., 1989. Economic Development in the Third World. London: Longmans.

FORMAL MODELS OF BUREAUCRACY. Theoretical constructs that are a simplification and an approximation of complex, observable bureaucratic events. The goal of this process is to strip away characteristics that are not fundamental or essential to some specific research question while retaining and simplifying those that are central to the query. This filtering allows researchers to quantify and manipulate a finite number of key variables. Exploration and study is accomplished by establishing situational relationships that correspond to actual scenarios. In public administration, the formal modeling approach is often applied to the analysis of bureaucratic behavior. The core idea is that complex organizations and their outputs can be analyzed as sums of discrete, rational subunits that are modeled with formalistic language and structures. In their most basic structure, formal models of bureaucracy establish and defend a finite set of assumptions that presumably underlie the relationship between actors in a specified system. Typically, these are defined in easily quantifiable terms. Hypotheses are tested deductively by applying different levels to the independent variables of interest and studying the ensuing changes in the dependent variables. Since each of the model aspects is controlled by the researcher, this process resembles experimentation rather than empirical research.

To be successful, a formal model of bureaucracy must highlight some previously untested relationship between variables and simultaneously produce an outcome that closely resembles empirical observation. In addition, formal models of bureaucracy face a fundamental trade-off with regard to generality. The greater the number and complexity of assumptions, the closer the model is to some observable phenomenon but the less generalizable it is to a broad class of situations. Therefore, the quality of a specific model is judged by how well these competing criteria are balanced against each other. The determination of model variables and the assumptions about the behavior of these variables is the fundamental process of model building.

In public administration, formal models can easily be divided into two general categories: models with a budgetary focus and models with a noribudgetary focus. The literature on the budgetary relationship between an executive branch agency and a funding legislature is well developed and relatively mature. This class of models begins with William Niskanen, Bureaucracy and Representative Government ( 1971). Niskanen used simple microeconomic

-922-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Editorial Board *
  • Title Page *
  • D 627
  • Bibliography 627
  • Bibliography 630
  • Bibliography 631
  • Bibliography 633
  • Bibliography 635
  • Bibliography 635
  • Bibliography 639
  • Bibliography 643
  • Bibliography 645
  • Bibliography 647
  • Bibliography 651
  • Bibliography 654
  • Bibliography 656
  • Bibliography 662
  • Bibliography 665
  • Bibliography 666
  • Bibliography 669
  • Bibliography 674
  • Bibliography 676
  • Bibliography 677
  • Bibliography 679
  • Bibliography 682
  • Bibliography 684
  • Bibliography 684
  • Bibliography 687
  • Bibliography 689
  • Bibliography 690
  • Bibliography 692
  • Bibliography 694
  • Bibliography 695
  • Bibliography 700
  • Bibliography 701
  • Bibliography 704
  • Bibliography 706
  • Bibliography 706
  • Bibliography 707
  • Bibliography 708
  • Bibliography 711
  • Bibliography 714
  • Bibliography 720
  • Bibliography 723
  • Bibliography 728
  • Bibliography 728
  • E 729
  • Bibliography 730
  • Bibliography 734
  • Bibliography 736
  • Bibliography 738
  • Bibliography 741
  • Bibliography 745
  • Bibliography 746
  • Bibliography 747
  • Bibliography 752
  • Bibliography 753
  • Bibliography 756
  • Bibliography 763
  • Bibliography 764
  • Bibliography 768
  • Bibliography 772
  • Bibliography 773
  • Bibliography 777
  • Bibliography 785
  • Bibliography 789
  • Bibliography 790
  • Bibliography 793
  • Bibliography 795
  • Bibliography 802
  • Bibliography 803
  • Bibliography 806
  • Bibliography 808
  • Bibliography 818
  • Bibliography 822
  • Bibliography 824
  • Bibliography 825
  • Bibliography 827
  • Bibliography 832
  • Bibliography 837
  • Bibliography 841
  • Bibliography 844
  • Bibliography 852
  • F 853
  • Bibliography 854
  • Bibliography 857
  • Bibliography 861
  • Bibliography 862
  • Bibliography 865
  • References 875
  • Bibliography 881
  • Bibliography 883
  • Bibliography 884
  • Bibliography 887
  • Bibliography 891
  • Bibliography 895
  • Bibliography 898
  • Bibliography 901
  • Bibliography 905
  • Bibliography 906
  • Bibliography 913
  • Bibliography 914
  • Bibliography 915
  • Bibliography 917
  • Bibliography 921
  • Bibliography 922
  • Bibliography 923
  • Bibliography 927
  • Bibliography 928
  • Bibliography 935
  • Bibliography 938
  • Bibliography 941
  • Bibliography 944
  • Bibliography 945
  • Bibliography 947
  • Bibliography 949
  • Bibliography 950
  • Bibliography 952
  • Bibliography 957
  • Bibliography 960
  • G 961
  • Bibliography 962
  • Bibliography 964
  • Bibliography 968
  • Bibliography 972
  • Bibliography 973
  • Bibliography 979
  • Bibliography 982
  • Bibliography 983
  • Bibliography 984
  • Bibliography 989
  • Bibliography 990
  • Bibliography 993
  • Bibliography 996
  • Bibliography 998
  • Bibliography 1002
  • Bibliography 1006
  • Bibliography 1007
  • Bibliography 1010
  • Bibliography 1014
  • Bibliography 1017
  • Bibliography 1018
  • Bibliography 1019
  • Bibliography 1023
  • Bibliography 1025
  • Bibliography 1030
  • Bibliography 1031
  • Bibliography 1035
  • H 1037
  • Bibliography 1039
  • Bibliograhy 1042
  • Bibliography 1046
  • Bibliography 1053
  • Bibliography 1058
  • Bibliography 1059
  • Bibliography 1061
  • Bibliography 1065
  • Bibliography 1069
  • Bibliography 1071
  • Bibliography 1072
  • Bibliography 1077
  • Bibliography 1078
  • Bibliography 1080
  • Bibliography 1080
  • Bibliography 1082
  • I 1083
  • Bibliography 1086
  • Bibliography 1087
  • Bibliography 1091
  • Bibliography 1093
  • Bibliography 1097
  • Bibliography 1098
  • Bibliography 1100
  • Bibliography 1101
  • Bibliography 1105
  • Bibliography 1109
  • Bibliography 1110
  • Bibliography 1115
  • Bibliography 1120
  • Bibliography 1126
  • Bibliography 1129
  • Bibliography 1130
  • Bibliography 1133
  • Bibliography 1136
  • Bibliography 1138
  • Bibliography 1139
  • Bibliography 1141
  • Bibliography 1144
  • Bibliography 1145
  • Bibliography 1151
  • Bibliography 1154
  • Bibliography 1156
  • Bibliography 1159
  • Bibliography 1161
  • Bibliography 1167
  • Bibliography 1181
  • Bibliography 1191
  • Bibliography 1196
  • Bibliography 1198
  • Bibliography 1200
  • Bibliography 1201
  • J 1207
  • Bibliography 1210
  • Bibliography 1210
  • Bibliography 1219
  • Bibliography 1220
  • Bibliography 1222
  • Bibliography 1224
  • Bibliography 1224
  • Bibliography 1228
  • Bibliography 1233
  • Bibliography 1236
  • Bibliography 1238
  • K 1239
  • Bibliography 1240
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 1240

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.