International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview

individual must provide evidence of current status, enrollment, or otherwise.

Membership fees provide a stable base of income and are less capricious than funding secured from an annual special event. Yet as more and more organizations seek memberships, those with similar goals have begun to enter into a competitive marketplace to entice members. When this occurs, membership drives promise not only to provide the obvious service (such as quality programming on public radio or television, or a subscription to a professional journal or zoo magazine) but also offer to provide the member with an item of extrinsic value, such as a coffee mug, an umbrella, a calendar, or a tote bag. These items provide a dual service to the organization: The membership fee is viewed to be more competitive because a gift is included, and the gift often serves as an advertising tool. People carrying tote bags with the name of the museum act as advertising agents. Under federal law, the item received must be deducted from the tax-deductible membership fee to the organization, so such advertising is not publicly supported.

Another fund-raising technique used by nonprofit organizations with access to the airwaves is the use of the corporate challenge gift. This is the process whereby individuals or companies seek to leverage their support for a philanthropic cause or nonprofit organization during a public fund-raising campaign by requiring that a specific amount be raised from the general public prior to making a sizable donation (see challenge gift).

Special events such as bike-a-thons, marathons, golf tournaments, concerts, and auctions are common fundraising methods employed by many organizations. School children are often involved; and recent research indicates that the demographic bump of post -- World War II baby boomers, as a group, may give more readily when they can be physically involved in the process through some type of sporting event or physical competition organized to raise money for a cause.

Professional fund-raisers or development officers find that if their organization chooses to be involved in largescale, ongoing campaigns of great significance (in health care, education, community development, or the arts, for example) they need to seek not only memberships and fees for services rendered but also additional revenues from granting agencies, corporations, or individuals, and sometimes government contracts. This desire, or the organizational need that comes from environmental uncertainty and fiscal stress, pressures the fund-raising personnel constantly and requires an ongoing attentiveness and professional focus, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the organization. Although fund-raisers may enter the field without professional training, once employed they find that other requisites of the profession (such as ethics and communication with others in the field through conferences and professional publications) are essential to their, and their organization's, success.

ERNA GELLES


BIBLIOGRAPHY

American Association of Fund-Raising Council (AAFRC), annual. Giving USA. New York: AAFRC.

-----, quarterly. Giving USA Update. New York: AAFRC.

Burlingame, Dwight F., and Lamont J. Hulse, 1991. Taking Fund Raising Seriously: Advancing the Profession and Practice of Raising Money. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Nonprofit Sector Series.

Chronicle of Philanthropy, biweekly (see various issues). Washington, D.C.

Clotfelter, Charles. 1985. Federal Tax Policy and Charitable Giving. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Commission on Private Philanthropy and Public Needs, 1975. Giving in America. Washington, DC: Commission.

Cutlip, Scott. 1965. Fund Raising in the United States: Its Role in American Philanthropy. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Filer Commission. See Commission on Private Philanthropy and Public Needs.

Fund Raising Management, monthly (see various issues). Garden City, NY: Hoke Communications.

Gronbjerg, Kirsten A., 1993. Understanding Nonprofit Funding: Managing Revenues in Social Services and Community Development Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Nonprofit Sector Series.

Harrah-Conforth, Jeanne, and John Borsos, 1991. "The Evolution of Professional Fund Raising: 1890-1990", pp. 18-36. In Dwight F. Burlingame, and Lamont J. Hulse, Taking Fund Raising Seriously: Advancing the Profession and Practice of Raising Money. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Nonprofit Sector Series.

National Charities Information Bureau (NCIB) (formerly National Information Bureau), quarterly publications include Standards in Philanthropy and Wise Giving Guide. New York.

National Council on Philanthropy (in 1980 merged with the Coalition of National Voluntary Organizations to create Independent Sector in Washington, D.C.). See its various publications.

National Society of Fund-Raising Executives (NSFRE) (formerly the National Society of Fund Raisers), quarterly NSFRE Journal. Alexandria, VA.

Seymour, H. J., 1966. Designs for Fund-Raising. Rockville, MD: Taft Group.

FUTURES ANALYSIS. The methods used to establish, identify, and review alternative directions for public and private policy choices in the light of possible futures. When people think about the future, search for patterns in the past that predict new directions, or set out their expectations for tomorrow, they are engaged in "future analysis." Every culture depends for its growth and development on a capacity to analyze trends, patterns, hopes, expectations, and even dreams to establish "the possible."

-957-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Editorial Board *
  • Title Page *
  • D 627
  • Bibliography 627
  • Bibliography 630
  • Bibliography 631
  • Bibliography 633
  • Bibliography 635
  • Bibliography 635
  • Bibliography 639
  • Bibliography 643
  • Bibliography 645
  • Bibliography 647
  • Bibliography 651
  • Bibliography 654
  • Bibliography 656
  • Bibliography 662
  • Bibliography 665
  • Bibliography 666
  • Bibliography 669
  • Bibliography 674
  • Bibliography 676
  • Bibliography 677
  • Bibliography 679
  • Bibliography 682
  • Bibliography 684
  • Bibliography 684
  • Bibliography 687
  • Bibliography 689
  • Bibliography 690
  • Bibliography 692
  • Bibliography 694
  • Bibliography 695
  • Bibliography 700
  • Bibliography 701
  • Bibliography 704
  • Bibliography 706
  • Bibliography 706
  • Bibliography 707
  • Bibliography 708
  • Bibliography 711
  • Bibliography 714
  • Bibliography 720
  • Bibliography 723
  • Bibliography 728
  • Bibliography 728
  • E 729
  • Bibliography 730
  • Bibliography 734
  • Bibliography 736
  • Bibliography 738
  • Bibliography 741
  • Bibliography 745
  • Bibliography 746
  • Bibliography 747
  • Bibliography 752
  • Bibliography 753
  • Bibliography 756
  • Bibliography 763
  • Bibliography 764
  • Bibliography 768
  • Bibliography 772
  • Bibliography 773
  • Bibliography 777
  • Bibliography 785
  • Bibliography 789
  • Bibliography 790
  • Bibliography 793
  • Bibliography 795
  • Bibliography 802
  • Bibliography 803
  • Bibliography 806
  • Bibliography 808
  • Bibliography 818
  • Bibliography 822
  • Bibliography 824
  • Bibliography 825
  • Bibliography 827
  • Bibliography 832
  • Bibliography 837
  • Bibliography 841
  • Bibliography 844
  • Bibliography 852
  • F 853
  • Bibliography 854
  • Bibliography 857
  • Bibliography 861
  • Bibliography 862
  • Bibliography 865
  • References 875
  • Bibliography 881
  • Bibliography 883
  • Bibliography 884
  • Bibliography 887
  • Bibliography 891
  • Bibliography 895
  • Bibliography 898
  • Bibliography 901
  • Bibliography 905
  • Bibliography 906
  • Bibliography 913
  • Bibliography 914
  • Bibliography 915
  • Bibliography 917
  • Bibliography 921
  • Bibliography 922
  • Bibliography 923
  • Bibliography 927
  • Bibliography 928
  • Bibliography 935
  • Bibliography 938
  • Bibliography 941
  • Bibliography 944
  • Bibliography 945
  • Bibliography 947
  • Bibliography 949
  • Bibliography 950
  • Bibliography 952
  • Bibliography 957
  • Bibliography 960
  • G 961
  • Bibliography 962
  • Bibliography 964
  • Bibliography 968
  • Bibliography 972
  • Bibliography 973
  • Bibliography 979
  • Bibliography 982
  • Bibliography 983
  • Bibliography 984
  • Bibliography 989
  • Bibliography 990
  • Bibliography 993
  • Bibliography 996
  • Bibliography 998
  • Bibliography 1002
  • Bibliography 1006
  • Bibliography 1007
  • Bibliography 1010
  • Bibliography 1014
  • Bibliography 1017
  • Bibliography 1018
  • Bibliography 1019
  • Bibliography 1023
  • Bibliography 1025
  • Bibliography 1030
  • Bibliography 1031
  • Bibliography 1035
  • H 1037
  • Bibliography 1039
  • Bibliograhy 1042
  • Bibliography 1046
  • Bibliography 1053
  • Bibliography 1058
  • Bibliography 1059
  • Bibliography 1061
  • Bibliography 1065
  • Bibliography 1069
  • Bibliography 1071
  • Bibliography 1072
  • Bibliography 1077
  • Bibliography 1078
  • Bibliography 1080
  • Bibliography 1080
  • Bibliography 1082
  • I 1083
  • Bibliography 1086
  • Bibliography 1087
  • Bibliography 1091
  • Bibliography 1093
  • Bibliography 1097
  • Bibliography 1098
  • Bibliography 1100
  • Bibliography 1101
  • Bibliography 1105
  • Bibliography 1109
  • Bibliography 1110
  • Bibliography 1115
  • Bibliography 1120
  • Bibliography 1126
  • Bibliography 1129
  • Bibliography 1130
  • Bibliography 1133
  • Bibliography 1136
  • Bibliography 1138
  • Bibliography 1139
  • Bibliography 1141
  • Bibliography 1144
  • Bibliography 1145
  • Bibliography 1151
  • Bibliography 1154
  • Bibliography 1156
  • Bibliography 1159
  • Bibliography 1161
  • Bibliography 1167
  • Bibliography 1181
  • Bibliography 1191
  • Bibliography 1196
  • Bibliography 1198
  • Bibliography 1200
  • Bibliography 1201
  • J 1207
  • Bibliography 1210
  • Bibliography 1210
  • Bibliography 1219
  • Bibliography 1220
  • Bibliography 1222
  • Bibliography 1224
  • Bibliography 1224
  • Bibliography 1228
  • Bibliography 1233
  • Bibliography 1236
  • Bibliography 1238
  • K 1239
  • Bibliography 1240
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 1240

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.