International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview

"lean administration," the part of the district government seems to be increasingly questionable, In addition, the administrative expertise of the county and communal administrations has increased as a result of the improved training of the civil servants, which coincides with the establishment of larger administrative units in the course of regional reforms. Considering, finally, also the modern technical possibilities of data transmission within seconds, the district government becomes more and more an anachronistic fossil from the Stone Ages of the administration.

The growth of the tasks of the public administration seems to have come to a halt since the public administration in the Federal Republic of Germany has been faced with a massive pressure to save money. For this reason, in nearly all federal states, more or less marked administrative reforms are implemented. These range from traditional reform actions in the organizational field to the introduction of a new public management. Certainly, these administrative reforms are not new. From the beginning, they have more or less accompanied the development of the public administration. Here, the civil service law and the public budget have proved to be particularly stable. As both differ in a decisive way from the labor law and from commercial accounting, once again the function of the law for the administration becomes evident. If the elimination of this decisive difference between public administrations and private companies fails, a stronger economic modernization of the public administration will not be possible in the foreseeable future (see Miller 1994).

MANFRED MILLER


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Becker, Bernd, 1989. Öffentliche Verwaltung. Lehrbuch fur Wissenschaft und Praxis. Percha: R. S. Schulz.

Boelcke, Willi A., 1992. Glück für das Land. Die Erfolgsgeschichte der Wirtschaftsförderung von Steinbels bis heute. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt. Brockbaus Lexikon, 1973. Stuttgart: Verlag Das Beste.

Ellwein, Thomas, 1977. Das Regierungssystem der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 4th ed., Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. Latest edition, Hesse, Jens Joachim/Ellwein, Thomas, 1992. Das Regierungssystem der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 7th ed., Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 1821. Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts oder Naturrecht und Staatswissenschaft im grundriß; latest edition: 1981 Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

Ipsen, Hans P., 1955. Hamburgs Verfassungs -- und Verwaltungsrecht. Hamburg: Appel.

Jeserich, Kurt G. A., Guenter Pohl, Georg Christian von Unruh, eds., 1983-1987. Deutsche Verwaltungsgeschichte, vol. 1-5. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlagsanstalt.

König, Klaus, 1992. "Zur Transformation einer real-sozialistichen Verwaltung in eine klassisch-europäische Verwaltung". Ver waltungsarchiv, vol. 83: 229-245.

Marx, Karl, 1843. Kritik des Hegelschen Staaarechts. This work was first published as late as in 1927. Latest edition, 1973. Stuttgart: Reclam.

Mayer, Otto, 1895. Deutsches Verwaltungsrecht. Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot.

Miller, Manfred, 1986. "Politikverflechtung als Organizationsprinzip. Die Bundesrepublik Deutschland und Frankreich auf dem Weg zum 'dezentralisierten Einheitsstaat'?" Die öffentliche Verwaltung, 4: 140-148.

Miller, Manfred, 1994. Anmerkungen zur betriebswirtschaftlichen Modernisierung der Verwaltung. Deutsche Verwaltungspraxis, 278-289.

Rebe, Bernd et al., 1986. Verfassung und Verwaltung des Landes Niedersachsen. Göttingen: Schwartz.

Reichard, Christoph, and Eckhard Schröter, 1993. "Berliner Verwaltungseliten. Rollenverhalten und Einstellungen von Führungskräften in der (Ost- und West) Berliner Verwaltung". In Wolfgang Seibel, Arthur Benz, Heinrich Mäding, eds., Verwaltungsreform und Verwaltungspolitik im Prozeß der deutschen Einiung. Baden-Baden: Nomos, 207-217.

Staatliche Zentralverwaltung für Statistik, 1989. Statistisches Jahrbuch 1989, Berlin: Staatsverlag der DDR.

GIFTS . Money or property transferred irrevocably to a nonprofit organization without compensation. The Glossary of Fund-Raising Terms, published by the National Society of Fund Raising Executives Institute, defines a gift as "a voluntary, irrevocable transfer of something of value without consideration at the time of transfer or at any future time. If the individual making the gift entertains any ideas of reclaiming it, the transfer is not a gift."

Effectively, gifts become gifts when the donor gives up control of the asset constituting the gift in favor of the recipient organization. Thus, usually, gifts of cash or securities become effective when mailed, with all instructions and conveyances signed and executed.

Gifts may come in many forms. Examples of common gifts to charity are cash or checks; securities; trusts, annuities, and life estates established irrevocably in favor of nonprofit organizations; real estate; gifts in-kind, such as computers, equipment, and so on; works of art; bargain sales (donor receives something that is of a lesser value than the property transferred to the nonprofit); gifts of income-the donor relinquishes the right to income from property in favor of the nonprofit, as in a lead trust; planned gift-a transfer legally provided for during the donor's lifetime but whose principal benefits do not accrue to the organization until some future time, generally at the death of the donor or the income beneficiary; unrestricted gifts-gifts not directed as to use; and, finally, restricted gifts-gifts whose use is directed by donor stipulation or binding agreement of acceptance.

ROBERT W. BUCHANAN AND
WILLIUM BERGOSH

-979-

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International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2
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