International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview

inherent capabilities and signals their potential productivity to potential employers.



Becker, Gary S., 1975. Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education. 2d ed. New York: Columbia University Press.

Berg, Ivar, 1969. Education and Jobs: The Great Training Robbery. New York: Praeger.

Hornbeck, David W., and Lester M. Salamon, eds., 1991. Human Capital and America's Future. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Kiker, B. F., 1971. Investment in Human Capital. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.

Mincer, Jacob, 1974. Schooling, Experience and Earnings. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.

"Investment in Human Beings", 1962. Journal of Political Economy. Supplement (October).

Parnes, Herbert S., 1984. People Power: Elements of Human Resource Policy. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Schultz, Theodore W., 1961. "Investment in Human Capital". American Economic Review 51: 1-17; reprinted in Kiker 1971, pp. 3-21.

-----, 1963. The Economic Value of Education. New York: Columbia University Press.

-----, 1971. Investment in Human Capital: The Role of Education and Research, New York: Free Press.

-----, 1981. Investing in People: The Economics of Population Quality. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Smith, Adam, (1776) 1936. The Wealth of Nations. New York: Modern Library.

Spence, Michael, 1973. "Job Market Signaling". Quarterly Journal of Economics 87: 344-74.

HUMAN RELATIONS. The study of problems that may arise from people's organizational and interpersonal relations; or a program designed to develop better interpersonal adjustments. The human relations model is an organizational model that offers an alternative paradigm to the traditional scientific management model. It employs five key behavioral domains to explain an organization's human system: (1) the social system and informal organization; (2) team or group behavior; (3) participatory management; (4) the behavioral effects of organization structure; and (5) the organization's values, norms, and beliefs.

The Organization's Social System

The early human relationists viewed organizations as complex social systems characterized by group interrelations, group pressure, and group cooperation. Mary Parker Follett ( 1924) first wrote about an organization's social system, and her model of "integrative solutions" to individual and group conflict is considered the initial construct that formed the basis for examining the role of individuals and their identity within a group.

F. J. Roethlisberger and William J. Dickson ( 1939) took Follet's concept of group further in their study ( 1924- 1939) of work groups in the Western Electric labs in Cicero, Illinois. This series of studies, known as the Hawthorne experiments, documented an organization's social and informal structure. In describing an organization's social system, they illustrated how a group's norms and values evolved. Their research illustrated how these norms and values affected the behavior and performance of individual team members. The Hawthorne experiments provided scientific documentation on the social system and informal structure of an organization. Perhaps most important, these experiments recognized the existence of an informal social structure within organizations (peer groups and supervisor-employee relationships). An organization's social structure evolves into its own set of norms and values. It impacts the behavior of individual group members.

In contrast to the early human relationists, Chester Barnard ( 1938) and Herbert Simon [ 1947] adopted a neohumanist position. Barnard and Simon recognized the importance of the individual-to-group interface and its relationship to administration and the decisionmaking process within organizations. For example, Simon [ 1947] approached cooperation in relation to the administrator's role to achieve conformity between the individual and the organization in the decisionmaking process: "The basic task of administration [is to] . . . provide . . . each operative employee with an environment of decision . . . which is rational from the standpoint of the group values" (p. 243). Simon believed that through cooperation and consensus, the administrator had much to gain and little to loose.

The laboratory experiments conducted by Eric Triste ( 1985) and Wilfred R. Bion during World War II continued the behavioral science research initiated by the early human relationists and neohumanists. In their experiments, Triste and Bion examined the relationship of "frontline" cooperation to officer success. Their research attempted to question Frederick Taylor's scientific management ( 1911) and, at the same time, give Taylor's values a new lease on life (i.e., labor-management cooperation).

In many respects, the work of Bion and Triste had farreaching consequences for the field of administrative science. In the short term, their work inspired the T-group practitioners of the 1950s. In the long term, their work established the foundation for writings concerning teamwork and participative management.

From T-Groups to Participatory Management

Beginning in the 1950s, the human relationists conducted laboratory (T-group) experiments based on the early work of Triste and Bion. These behavioral scientists often con


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