International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview

problematical political viability of a true antispending political coalition over time.


Indexing as Good Public Policy

There are not any easy answers to whether indexing constitutes good public policy. Public policy makers have illustrated a wide range of choices when it comes to indexing. Indexing expenditures, as opposed to revenues, presents a clear example of how policymakers, even of the same ideological persuasion, can be for and against indexing for inflation. Policymakers, in terms of their options, need to be aware of the many positive and negative externalities involved in any decision to index for inflation or otherwise. Explicit indexing of Social Security benefits, for instance, affects not only the fiscal soundness of the trust fund but also saving and replacement rates. Only by accounting for the more implicit and informal dimensions of indexing can a policy analyst fully comprehend the wisdom of indexing a program or a revenue source for inflation. The value of indexing is not easily separated from the value attached to a particular public or social policy, or to government itself.

GEORGE FREDERICK GOERL


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Derthick, Martha, 1979. Policymaking for Social Security. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.

Munnell, Alicia, 1977. The Future of Social Security. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Savoie, Donald, 1990. The Politics of Public Spending in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Steurele, C. Eugene, 1985. Taxes, Loans and Inflation. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

-----, The Tax Decade. Washington DC,: Urban Institute.

United States Department of Labor, 1992. Bureau of Labor Statistics Handbook of Methods. Washington DC,: GPO.

Weaver, R. Kent, 1988. Automatic Government. Washington DC,: Brookings Institution.

Wildavsky, Aaron, 1980. How to Limit Governmental Spending. Berkeley: University of California Press.

-----, 1992. The New Politics of the Budgetary Process. 2d. ed. New York: HarperCollins.

INDIAN ADMINISTRATIVE TRADITION. The management practices and organizational culture of the civil service in India.


The Heritage

In 1853 the British Parliament passed the act directing that recruitment to the Indian Civil Service (ICS) be made by open competitive examination (Drewry and Butcher 1988). That the ICS was then the torch bearer of the British tradition in civil service is amply borne out by the fact that it was not until 1870 that the civil service commissioners in London gained control over graduate recruitment for higher posts in the home civil service through open competitive examination. By 1913, there were as many as 30 Indians in the combined Bengal-Bombay-Madras establishment of nearly 800 officers administering the subcontinent from Burma to Baluchistan. Even in 1947, the permanent secretary in Whitehall drew almost the same salary as his ICS counterpart in New Delhi, and the total cadre strength of the ICS was still in three figures.

The uniquely unified civil service structure of the ICS provided talent not only for the top levels of the country's executive bureaucracy but also for the top levels of the country's judiciary and diplomatic posts. There is today a powerful school of thought that considers this heritage a handicap rather than an advantage, providing a rigid hidebound framework suitable for colonial administration that made subsequent restructuring and modernization almost an impossible task. The fact that inclusive of the perquisite of a large bungalow and exclusive chauffeur-driven car, a permanent secretary of the Indian government at New Delhi in 1995 drew less than one-tenth of the salary of his or her counterparts in London-who often share the common background of an Oxbridge education-is only one aspect of this difference, if not deterioration. Indeed, the counterparts at Islamabad, Pakistan, and Dacca, Bangladesh, are even worse off. Equally, the fact that Britain itself is fighting to modernize the bureaucracy is another aspect of the similar realization dawning in India.

The sentiment expressed by India's first prime minister from 1947 to 1964, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru ( 1937), that "no new order can be built up in India so long as the spirit of the ICS pervades our administration and our public services" is, in a sense, still relevant today nearly two decades after the extinction of the last ICS officer from Indian bureaucracy (the last of the Indian civil servants recruited by the British Raj in 1943 retired in the years 1979 to 1980).

Ironically, the ICS tradition of high talent, integrity, and independence has also been replaced with mediocrity, corruption, and sycophancy in the post-ICS structure. And yet, there is some lingering similarity between the two structures-which makes comparative analysis of the failures in India with those in United Kingdom particularly instructive. Although the degree of failure varies, there are interesting lessons to be learned from each case. The apprehension often heard in England is that a growing civil service can be a harbinger of collectivism, even of socialist revolution, and the attempts have been made by democratically elected governments, like those in the UK and India, to reduce its size. The civil service in both of these countries, however, not only survived but grew greatly in size, and also, by and large, in stature, as an essential in

-1115-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Editorial Board *
  • Title Page *
  • D 627
  • Bibliography 627
  • Bibliography 630
  • Bibliography 631
  • Bibliography 633
  • Bibliography 635
  • Bibliography 635
  • Bibliography 639
  • Bibliography 643
  • Bibliography 645
  • Bibliography 647
  • Bibliography 651
  • Bibliography 654
  • Bibliography 656
  • Bibliography 662
  • Bibliography 665
  • Bibliography 666
  • Bibliography 669
  • Bibliography 674
  • Bibliography 676
  • Bibliography 677
  • Bibliography 679
  • Bibliography 682
  • Bibliography 684
  • Bibliography 684
  • Bibliography 687
  • Bibliography 689
  • Bibliography 690
  • Bibliography 692
  • Bibliography 694
  • Bibliography 695
  • Bibliography 700
  • Bibliography 701
  • Bibliography 704
  • Bibliography 706
  • Bibliography 706
  • Bibliography 707
  • Bibliography 708
  • Bibliography 711
  • Bibliography 714
  • Bibliography 720
  • Bibliography 723
  • Bibliography 728
  • Bibliography 728
  • E 729
  • Bibliography 730
  • Bibliography 734
  • Bibliography 736
  • Bibliography 738
  • Bibliography 741
  • Bibliography 745
  • Bibliography 746
  • Bibliography 747
  • Bibliography 752
  • Bibliography 753
  • Bibliography 756
  • Bibliography 763
  • Bibliography 764
  • Bibliography 768
  • Bibliography 772
  • Bibliography 773
  • Bibliography 777
  • Bibliography 785
  • Bibliography 789
  • Bibliography 790
  • Bibliography 793
  • Bibliography 795
  • Bibliography 802
  • Bibliography 803
  • Bibliography 806
  • Bibliography 808
  • Bibliography 818
  • Bibliography 822
  • Bibliography 824
  • Bibliography 825
  • Bibliography 827
  • Bibliography 832
  • Bibliography 837
  • Bibliography 841
  • Bibliography 844
  • Bibliography 852
  • F 853
  • Bibliography 854
  • Bibliography 857
  • Bibliography 861
  • Bibliography 862
  • Bibliography 865
  • References 875
  • Bibliography 881
  • Bibliography 883
  • Bibliography 884
  • Bibliography 887
  • Bibliography 891
  • Bibliography 895
  • Bibliography 898
  • Bibliography 901
  • Bibliography 905
  • Bibliography 906
  • Bibliography 913
  • Bibliography 914
  • Bibliography 915
  • Bibliography 917
  • Bibliography 921
  • Bibliography 922
  • Bibliography 923
  • Bibliography 927
  • Bibliography 928
  • Bibliography 935
  • Bibliography 938
  • Bibliography 941
  • Bibliography 944
  • Bibliography 945
  • Bibliography 947
  • Bibliography 949
  • Bibliography 950
  • Bibliography 952
  • Bibliography 957
  • Bibliography 960
  • G 961
  • Bibliography 962
  • Bibliography 964
  • Bibliography 968
  • Bibliography 972
  • Bibliography 973
  • Bibliography 979
  • Bibliography 982
  • Bibliography 983
  • Bibliography 984
  • Bibliography 989
  • Bibliography 990
  • Bibliography 993
  • Bibliography 996
  • Bibliography 998
  • Bibliography 1002
  • Bibliography 1006
  • Bibliography 1007
  • Bibliography 1010
  • Bibliography 1014
  • Bibliography 1017
  • Bibliography 1018
  • Bibliography 1019
  • Bibliography 1023
  • Bibliography 1025
  • Bibliography 1030
  • Bibliography 1031
  • Bibliography 1035
  • H 1037
  • Bibliography 1039
  • Bibliograhy 1042
  • Bibliography 1046
  • Bibliography 1053
  • Bibliography 1058
  • Bibliography 1059
  • Bibliography 1061
  • Bibliography 1065
  • Bibliography 1069
  • Bibliography 1071
  • Bibliography 1072
  • Bibliography 1077
  • Bibliography 1078
  • Bibliography 1080
  • Bibliography 1080
  • Bibliography 1082
  • I 1083
  • Bibliography 1086
  • Bibliography 1087
  • Bibliography 1091
  • Bibliography 1093
  • Bibliography 1097
  • Bibliography 1098
  • Bibliography 1100
  • Bibliography 1101
  • Bibliography 1105
  • Bibliography 1109
  • Bibliography 1110
  • Bibliography 1115
  • Bibliography 1120
  • Bibliography 1126
  • Bibliography 1129
  • Bibliography 1130
  • Bibliography 1133
  • Bibliography 1136
  • Bibliography 1138
  • Bibliography 1139
  • Bibliography 1141
  • Bibliography 1144
  • Bibliography 1145
  • Bibliography 1151
  • Bibliography 1154
  • Bibliography 1156
  • Bibliography 1159
  • Bibliography 1161
  • Bibliography 1167
  • Bibliography 1181
  • Bibliography 1191
  • Bibliography 1196
  • Bibliography 1198
  • Bibliography 1200
  • Bibliography 1201
  • J 1207
  • Bibliography 1210
  • Bibliography 1210
  • Bibliography 1219
  • Bibliography 1220
  • Bibliography 1222
  • Bibliography 1224
  • Bibliography 1224
  • Bibliography 1228
  • Bibliography 1233
  • Bibliography 1236
  • Bibliography 1238
  • K 1239
  • Bibliography 1240
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 1240

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.