International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2

By Jay M. Shafritz | Go to book overview

enforcers, they take a stronger role, in effect ordering rationalization with the threat of cuts in funding if it does not occur. In the case of governments, they may go so far as to dictate the form a collaboration should take, for instance, a series of mergers. The cupid role is usually very beneficial to the collaborative process in that it trusts the parties to reach their own agreements and provides positive reinforcements when they do so. The enforcer role usually breeds massive resentment and concerted efforts by those being coerced to attack the third party's position. The original potential for collaboration can be lost as a result.

Resource Scarcity . A strong motivation to enter collaborative ventures can be created by a moderate amount of anxiety over declining resources ( Lawrence and Dyer 1983). Joint ventures can offer the prospect of synergy and leverage-more or better service for less money. Conversely, if cuts in resources appear too suddenly or are too large, they can create such stress and burnout that a "bunker mentality" sets in at the leadership level. This can quickly paralyze the willingness to innovate, including the effort needed to build collaborative ventures.

General Community and Social Values . Successful collaboration usually requires a basic trust in the other party and a willingness to trade off some of one's own interests to allow the others to gain some of theirs. In society at large, and in particular communities, there are general social values that address the willingness to trust others and compromise on one's interests. Various social commentators on the current state of North American society have pointed out that, in fact, these values are changing in a negative direction (e.g., Bethke-Elshtain 1995). Trust between people and organizations is breaking down and interests are more and more being defined as nonnegotiable rights. Such trends do not auger well for complex, large-scale collaborative efforts between voluntary sector organizations.

By way of conclusion, it is clear that the pressure for more collaboration in the nonprofit sector is great, but we need to know much more about what will get the actual process started and what determines its success. Consciousness of the various forms of collaborative effort and the factors affecting the process is an important beginning to the necessary research.

VIC MURRAY


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alter, Catherine, and Jerald Hage, 1993. Organizations Working Together. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Benson, J., 1975. "The Interpersonal Network as a Political Economy". Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 20, no. 2: 229-249.

Bethke-Elshtain, Jean, 1995. Democracy on Trial. New York: Basic Books.

D'Aunno, T. A., and H. S. Zuckerman, 1987. "A Life Cycle Model of Organizational Federations: The Case of Hospitals". Academy of Management Review, vol. 12: 534-545.

Di P. J. Maggio, and W. W. Powell, 1983. "The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields". American Sociological Review, vol. 48: 147-160.

Fisher, Roger, William Ury, and Bruce Patton, 1991. Getting to Yes. New York: Penguin.

Galaskiewicz, J., and D. Shatin 1981. "Leadership and Networking among Neighborhood Human Service Organizations". Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 26: 434-448.

Galbraith, Jay, 1973. Designing Complex Organizations. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Gouldner, Alvin, 1959. "Organizational Analysis". In R. K. Merton , L. Broom and L. J. Cottrell, eds., Sociology Today. New York: Basic Books.

Gray, Barbara, 1985. "Conditions Facilitating Interorganizational Collaboration". Human Relations, vol. 38: 911-936.

-----, 1986. "Political Limits to Interorganizational Consensus and Change". The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, vol. 22: 95-112.

-----, 1989. Collaborating: Finding Common Ground for Multiparty Problems. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Hord, S., 1986. "A Synthesis of Research on Organizational Collaboration". Educational Leadership, vol. 43: 22-26.

Jick, Todd, 1993. Managing Change. Boston: Irwin.

Lawrence, Paul, and Davis Dyer, 1983. Renewing American Industry. New York: Free Press.

Mattessich, Paul, and Barbara Monsey, 1992. Collaboration: What Makes It Work? St. Paul, MN: Amherst Wilder Foundation.

Mintzberg, Henry, 1979. The Structuring of Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Moxon, R.et al., 1988. "International Cooperative Ventures in the Aircraft Industry". In F. Constructor and P. Lorange, eds., Cooperative Strategies in International Business. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books255-278.

Pfeffer, Jeffrey, and Gerald Salancik, 1978. The External Control of Organizations. New York: Harper and Row.

Ring, Peter Smith, and Andrew H. Van de Ven, 1994. "Developmental Processes of Cooperative Interorganizational Relationships". Academy of Management Review, vol. 19: 90-118.

Schein, Edgar, 1985. Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION . The exchange of messages from one person to another, not necessarily verbally. One of the interesting things about communication is that it is impossible not to communicate. That is, for 24 hours of every day, as long as we are alive, we are simultaneously both sending and receiving communications. What we choose to wear, how we comb our hair, how we stand, what we prefer to eat or not eat; everything we do or don't do sends messages of some sort to others. They may not be the messages we would have liked to have communicated, or they may not be what we thought we were communicating, but as long as there is someone there to see us, or to hear us, we will have communicated something.

We are also receiving messages 24 hours of every day. Most of the messages we receive are nonhuman messages, frequently about the environment around us (the tempera

-1196-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 1240

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.