N. W. Jones, " Account of Chinese
Voyages to the Northwest Coast of
America," Indian Bulletin for 1868
( New York, 1869), p. 8.
Alan Moorehead, Darwin and The Beagle ( London: Hamish Hamilton, 1969),
p. 218. See also Harry Morton, The Wind
Commands: Sailors and Sailing Ships in
the Pacific ( Vancouver: University of
British Columbia Press, 1975), p. 166.
Small merchantmen seldom attempted
the Horn even in the 1780's. In 1786, the
50-ton sloop Princess Royal, Master Charles Duncan, R.N., commanding,
made a remarkably easy passage round
the Horn that was for some time the talk
of mariners on the west coast of the
See Matthew F. Maury, Explanations
and Sailing Directions to Accompany the
Wind and Current Charts ..., 8th ed., 2 vols. ( Washington, 1858-59),
pp. 764-67. By 1869 enough was known
concerning winds and currents to enable Maury to list the following distances for
sailing ships: England to San Francisco,
130 days; Shanghai to San Francisco, 45
days; San Francisco to Shanghai, 64
days; New South Wales to San Francisco,
43 days; New South Wales to the eastern
seaboard of the United States or Europe,
110 days; London to New South Wales
via Cape of Good Hope, 124 days. See
winds and routes map in Matthew F.
Maury, Physical Geography of the Sea
and Its Meteorology, new ed. ( London, 1869), plate 8.
Important mid- eighteenth-century advances in scientific navigation were: Hadley's reflecting quadrant, Campbell's
sextant, Bird's astronomical quadrant,
Knight's azimuth compasses, Ramsden's
theodolites, and Harrison's chronometers. See R. A. Skelton, " Captain
James Cook as a Hydrographer," Mariner's Mirror 40 ( 1954): 95.
The 1795 regulation may have sufficed
for the Royal Navy, but it did not always
meet all dietetic needs. Even early in the
twentieth century the causes and prevention of scurvy were still being debated.
(see " Discussion on the Prevention of
Scurvy," British Medical Journal, 4 October 1902, pp. 1023-24). On this subject
generally, see Christopher Lloyd, ed., The Health of Seamen ( London: Navy
Records Society, 1965), vol. 107. Also, Barbara Burkhardt et al., Sailors & Sauerkraut ( Sidney, B.C.: Gray's Publishing, 1978), pp. 23-26.
Admiral G. A. Ballard, " Cape Horn," Mariner's Mirror3 ( 1945): 144.
Morton, Wind Commands, p. 3.
William Camden, History( 1675 ed.),
p. 255(quoted in Sir William Foster, England's Quest of Eastern Trade [ London: A. & C. Black, 1933], p. 64).
Gregory King, " The Naval Trade of
England, 1688," in Two Tracts by Gregory King, p. 31(quoted in K. G.
Davies, " Joint-Stock Investment in the
Late Seventeenth Century," Economic
History Review, 2d ser. 4 [ 1952]: 285).
A. P. Newton, " The Beginnings of
English Colonization, 1569-1618," Cambridge History of the British Empire, 24 vols. ( Cambridge: UniversityPress, 1929), 1: 53