Psychological and Biological Approaches to Emotion

By Nancy L. Stein; Bennett Leventhal et al. | Go to book overview
Save to active project

The Development of Anger Expressions in Infancy

Craig R. Stenberg Duke University

Joseph J. Campos University of California, Berkeley


Anger has long been regarded as a basic element of affective life, a fundamental or primary human emotion. It is crucial for human survival, having important internal regulatory and social communicative functions. Physiologically, it prepares the body to initiate and sustain high levels of focused and directed activity. Psychologically, it is linked to self-protective and aggressive action tendencies. As a form of social communication, anger conveys distinct messages to others, forcasting predictable consequences, and eliciting affective and behavioral responses in others (e.g., Camras, 1977; Frijda, 1986; Izard, 1977). Defects in the ability to modulate or express anger may have serious consequences for an individual's physical or psychological well-being. Societies seek in various ways to control, channel, and even proscribe certain angry actions, because intense anger can damage a person's judgment and foster behaviors resulting in injuries to self, others, or property. It can damage interpersonal relationships if inappropriately displayed or suppressed ( Holmes & Horan, 1976; Holt, 1970). Further, it has been implicated as a contributing factor in numerous diseases and psychopathological disorders (e.g., Alexander & Flagg, 1965; Kutash, 1965; Rado, 1959; Wolman, 1965).

The study of anger, then, is of both scholarly interest and practical importance. Surprisingly, especially given recent speculation that it may be innate ( Ekman, 1972; Izard, 1971; Tomkins, 1962), little scientific research exists on its ontogenesis. In 1931, Florence Goodenough began her monograph, Anger in young children, with this observation: "Despite the theoretical importance of


Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Cite this page

Cited page

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Psychological and Biological Approaches to Emotion
Table of contents

Table of contents



Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen
/ 454

matching results for page

Cited passage

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?