Psychological and Biological Approaches to Emotion

By Nancy L. Stein; Bennett Leventhal et al. | Go to book overview
Save to active project

Notice in the table that more 4-month-olds exhibited their first negative vocalization when positioned toward their hands than did 7-month-olds, z = 3.54, p < .001. More 7-month-olds expressed their first negative vocalization toward their mother than did the 4-month-olds, z = 2.99, p < .003. Four- and 7-month- olds did not differ significantly from each other on any other targets. Looking at these results in a slightly different manner, 7-month-olds expressed their first negative vocalization exclusively in the direction of persons, X2 = 12, p < .001. More 4-month-olds expressed their first negative vocalization to the site of the frustration (hands) than they did to the figures in the room, although not significantly more, X2 = 3, p < .10. The same overall pattern of results was observed when the first negative vocalizations of the infants were tabulated irrespective of period of onset. The vocalic expressions of 7-month-olds, then, were decidedly person specific; those of four-month-olds were task specific. One-month-olds were indiscriminate. Not only were 1-month-olds' first negative vocalizations not discriminatively expressed in period 2, but even when they were first observed these infants were facing the miscellaneous target areas as often as persons or hands (7 vs. 7), X2 = 0, p = ns.

Is Crying Related to Restraint, Anger Facial Expressions, Flushing, or Shedding of Tears?

The presence of crying did not account for the anger facial behaviors reported previously. During the initial postrestraint facial expression scoring segment among 4- and 7-month-olds, there were 18 subjects who showed the "semidiscrete template," and 10 who showed the "discrete anger template" (see Table 10.3). Only 2 of the 18 subjects cried while manifesting the "semidiscrete template," and only I of 10 babies cried while showing the "discrete anger template."

Nor did the data conform to the hypothesis that the infants were posturing their faces in the predicted manner in anticipation of crying (i.e., a precry face). The expression of anger was not more prevalent in crying versus noncrying children. During the prolonged facial scoring epoch, when more than half the subjects were crying, the presence of crying was not significantly related to the expression of either type of template.


This study lends strong support to the claim that the capacity to express anger through coordinated facial patterning emerges before 4 months of age. In addition, it reveals that by at least 4 months anger facial displays may function as discrete social signals. These signals are at first directed proximally to the immediate source of frustration, but by 7 months they become expressed directly to


Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Cite this page

Cited page

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Psychological and Biological Approaches to Emotion
Table of contents

Table of contents



Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen
/ 454

matching results for page

Cited passage

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?