The Hutchinson Encyclopedia of the Renaissance

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Cabezón, Antonio de (1510-1566)

Spanish organist and composer. Although blind from early childhood, he studied with Tomás Gómez at Palencia and became chamber organist and harpsichordist to Charles V, remaining at court under Philip II, and accompanying him to England on his marriage to Mary I. He composed music for organ, vihuela, and other instruments.

Cabot, Sebastian (1474-1557)

Italian navigator and cartographer, the second son of Giovanni Caboto. He explored the Brazilian coast and the Rio de la Plata for the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1526-30.

Cabot was also employed by Henry VIII, Edward VI, and Ferdinand of Spain. He planned a voyage to China by way of the Northeast Passage, the sea route along the north Eurasian coast, encouraged the formation of the Company of Merchant Adventurers of London in 1551, and in 1553 and 1556 directed the company's expeditions to Russia, where he opened British trade.

Caboto, Giovanni (JOHN CABOT) (c. 1450- c. 1498)

Italian navigator. Commissioned, with his three sons, by Henry VII of England to discover unknown lands, he arrived at Cape Breton Island on 24 June 1497, thus becoming the first European to reach the North American mainland (he thought he was in northeast Asia). In 1498 he sailed again, touching Greenland, and probably died on the voyage.

Cabral, Pedro Alvares (1460-1526)

Portuguese explorer who made Brazil a Portuguese possession in 1500 and negotiated the first commercial treaty between Portugal and India. Cabral set sail from Lisbon for the East Indies in March 1500, and accidentally reached Brazil by taking a course too far west. He claimed the country for Portugal on 25 April, since Spain had not followed up the landing by Vicente Pinzón (c. 1460-1523) there earlier in the year. Continuing around Africa, he lost 7 of his fleet of 13 ships (the explorer Bartolomeu Diaz was one of those drowned), and landed in Mozambique. Proceeding to India, he negotiated the first Indo-Portuguese treaties for trade, and returned to Lisbon in July 1501.

Caccini, Giulio (c. 1545-1618)

Italian singer, lutenist, and composer. He wrote short vocal pieces in recitative style and sang them to the theorbo, which led to larger essays of the kind, set to scenes by Count Giovanni Bardi, and eventually to Rinuccini's libretto for the opera Euridice, first set by Jacopo Peri and immediately afterwards by Caccini in 1602. In 1604-05 he visited Paris with his daughter, Francesca Caccini ( 1587-c. 1640), who was herself a composer as well as a singer.

Caccini was born in Tivoli or Rome, and was taken to Florence by Cosimo I de' Medici around 1565. He was successful as a singer there, and became known throughout Italy. He used to attend Count Bardi's salon in Florence, and was credited with the invention of a new style of song, the stile recitativo, which developed there. The first mention of Caccini as a composer dates from 1589, when he composed music for the marriage of Grand Duke Ferdinando I. In 1600 he was appointed musical director at the court of the Medici family, and remained in their service until his death.

His two songbooks, Le nuove musiche, published in 1602 and 1614, contain pieces for solo voice and figured bass. The first has a preface on the new style of singing and composition adopted by Caccini, and embellishments in the music that were usually improvised are written out in full.

Works include:

The operas Euridice and Il rapimento di Cefalo (both 1602); Nuove musiche containing madrigals and arias for voice and continuo.

Caius, John (JOHN KAYE OR KEYS) (1510-1573)

English physician and humanist. He was educated at Gonville Hall, Cambridge, and at the University of


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