The Hutchinson Encyclopedia of the Renaissance

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Pacher, Michael (1430-1498)

Austrian painter and wood sculptor. He was one of the principal late-Gothic masters of the carved and painted altarpiece, such as that in the Church of St Wolfgang on the Abersee, Upper Austria, produced 1471-81.

He had some contact with Venice, Padua, and Mantua, where Andrea Mantegna was his contemporary, though Italian influence appears mainly in the concentration of perspective on a focal point and in some details of ornament. Pacher executed altarpieces in Gries, Neustift, Salzburg, and other places in his native region. His Coronation of the Virgin ( 1471-81) is in the Pinakothek, Munich.


Pagani, Gregorio (1558-1605)

Florentine painter. A fine colourist, he helped to renew Florentine art during the last years of the 16th century. The Family of Tobit and frescoes in the Church of Santa Maria Novella, which are his best- known works, are all in Florence.


Painter, William (c. 1525-1590)

English translator. He is remembered for his two- volume Palace of Pleasure ( 1566-67), an anthology of more than 100 stories taken from a wide range of writers, including Livy, Plutarch, Giraldi (Cinthio), Boccaccio, Bandello, and Marguerite of Navarre. The stories were adapted by many English writers and dramatists, notably Shakespeare, who uses material from this book in Romeo and Juliet, Timon of Athens, All's Well That Ends Well, and The Rape of Lucrece.

Probably born in London, he was educated at Cambridge and became a schoolmaster in Kent.


Paix, Jakob (1556-AFTER 1623)

German composer. He wrote German songs and Latin church music, but his chief work was his collection of keyboard music, published in 1583, which included original compositions as well as highly ornamented arrangements of songs and motets. He was organist at Lauingen, Swabia ( 1576-1601), and court organist at Neuburg an der Donau ( 1601-17).


Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da (c. 1525-1594)

Italian composer. He wrote secular and sacred choral music, and is regarded as the outstanding exponent of Renaissance counterpoint. Apart from motets and madrigals, he also wrote 105 masses, including Missa Papae Marcelli.


Palissy, Bernard (1510-1589)

French potter. He made richly coloured rustic pieces, such as dishes with realistic modelled fish and reptiles. He was favoured by the queen, Catherine de' Medici, but was imprisoned in the Bastille as a Huguenot in 1588 and died there.


Palladio, Andrea (1508-1580)

Italian architect who created harmonious and balanced classical structures. He designed numerous palaces and country houses in and around Vicenza, making use of Roman Classical forms, symmetry, and proportion. The Villa Malcontenta and the Villa Rotonda are examples of houses designed from 1540 for patrician families of the Venetian Republic. He also designed churches in Venice and published his studies of Classical form in several illustrated books.

His ideas were imitated in England in the early 17th century by Inigo Jones.

Palladio was born at Padua, and studied in Vicenza and Rome. His style was an attempt to revive the severity and dignity of Roman architecture, and was derived from Vitruvius and from a study of the Roman monuments that remained. He greatly influenced the architecture of his day by his work, I quattro libri dell'Architettura/The Four Books of Architecture

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