The Hutchinson Encyclopedia of the Renaissance

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Quagliati, Paolo (c. 1555-1628)

Italian composer. He was organist at the church of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome from 1601. For the wedding of Carlo Gesualdo's daughter, Isabella, in 1623 he wrote a collection of instrumental pieces, entitled La sfera armoniosa.


Works include:

The dramatic cantata Carro di fedeltà d'amore ( 1806); motets; spiritual and secular madrigals and canzonets; organ and harpsichord works.


quattrocento (ITALIAN 'FOUR HUNDRED')

Denotes the 1400s and used in relation to Italian culture of the 15th century.


Quercia, Jacopo della (c. 1374-1438)

Sienese sculptor. He was a contemporary of Donatello and Ghiberti. His major works were a fountain for his hometown of Siena, the Fonte Gaia 1414-19 (Palazzo Pubblico, Siena), and the main portal at San Petronio, Bologna, 1425-38. His turbulent style and powerful figures influenced Michelangelo, whose painting The Creation of Adam (1511, Sistine Chapel, Vatican) was inspired by Jacopo's relief panel of the same subject at San Petronio.


questione della lingua (ITALIAN 'THE LANGUAGE QUESTION')

Debate over which dialect of the Italian peninsula was best suited for literary expression. It was an issue discussed in the early 16th century with different solutions advanced by the likes of Pietro Bembo, Baldassare Castiglione, and Niccolò Machiavelli.

Discussion of the volgare had its origins in the early 14th century, with Dante De vulgari eloquentia/On Vernacular Eloquence ( 1304-06). Dante discussed the suitability of various dialects for poetic composition, finding all excellent in part but none perfect. While the tre corone (three crowns) -- Dante, Boccaccio, and Petrarch -- wrote in the vernacular as well as Latin, the enterprise of studia bumanitatis (see feature) was, naturally, focused on composition in the ancient tongue.

In the late 15th century, however, there was increased interest in the volgare as a mode of expression, which necessarily raised the question of which dialect was most appropriate. Pietro Bembo, in Prose della volgar lingua/writings in the Vernacular Tongue ( 1525), argued that just as Virgil and Cicero had become the exemplars of Latin style, so Petrarch and Boccaccio were the models for Italian composition. This promotion of an archaic Tuscan style was supported by Leonardo Salviati and the Accademia della Crusca; though it was the most favoured response to the questione, other writers suggested different solutions. Castiglione, for example, promoted a lingua cortigiana (courtly language), reflecting actual usage in the Italian courts. Machiavelli, on the other hand, in his Discorso o Dialogo intorno a la nostra lingua/Discourse or Dialogue on Our Language ( 1525), rejected Bembo's old-fashioned Tuscan for contemporary Florentine usage.


Quixote, Don

Eponymous principal character of Cervantes's two- part novel (Part I: 1605, Part II: 1615.). The work concerns the (mis)adventures of Alonso Quijano, a nobleman of extremely modest means, whose obsessive readings of chivalric romances eventually convince him to ride out as a knight himself. He changes his name to Don Quixote, acquires an old nag as a steed (calling it Rocinante), and chooses as his lady a local girl, Aldonza Lorenzo, renaming her Dulcinea del Toboso in accordance with his chivalric fantasies. Thus prepared, he rides forth, always interpreting unextraordinary encounters and situations in terms of the extraordinary and literary. Hence a group of windmills become giants to be challenged, and a flock of sheep become an army to be fought. Quixote's actions are naturally misunderstood by his fellow human beings; as a result he is frequently subjected to vicious beatings. Undeterred, Quixote resumes his wanderings, now accompanied by Sancho Panza, a

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