Italian canon lawyer. Zabarella taught at Padua and wrote a series of influential commentaries on canon law texts; but he was also a theorist of conciliarism, producing De Schismate ( 1408), which methodically demonstrated how a council, convened by the emperor, was the legitimate means by which to end the Great Schism. Created a cardinal in 1411 (alongside Pierre d'Ailly), he attended the Council of Constance and died there. His funeral sermon was written, in classicizing style, by Poggio Bracciolini.
By Eternal God (of whom he was the sharpest defender), who -- unless they have exceptional genius and nearly godlike eloquence -- could list the praises of his whole life, let alone elaborate on them? Many I have seen, many I myself have known, excellent men of today who have been endowed with a single singular virtue; but of those who exhibit all the virtues in all their strength, I have known -- apart from this man -- none.
POGGIO BRACCIOLINI, Funeral Oration on Cardinal Zabarella, 1417
Italian music theorist and composer. He wrote two large treatises, the three-volume Istitutioni armoniche ( 1558) and Dimostrationi armoniche ( 1571). He was attacked for these by Vincenzo Galilei, whereupon he issued another volume, Sopplimenti musicali ( 1588); a fourth, non-musical volume, was added to the complete edition later. In his theories he discussed modes and intervals, and also looked back to Classical models, seeking to summarize and develop the musical theory of the Greeks.
Born in Chioggia, Zarlino was educated by Franciscan monks, and joined the order in 1521. In 1536 he was a singer at Chioggia Cathedral. He studied theology and received minor orders in 1539 (when he became organist at the cathedral), but was learned also in philosophy, sciences, and languages. He settled in Venice in 1541, became a fellow student with Cipriano de Rore under Adrian Willaert, and in 1565 became first maestro di cappella at St Mark's. In 1583 he was offered the bishopric of Chioggia, but declined it, preferring to remain at St Mark's.
Zarlino wrote motets and madrigals, but was chiefly a theorist. Le istitutioni harmoniche caused Willaert's methods of contrapuntal writing to become models of the style.
Mass for the foundation of the Church of Santa Maria della Salute and other church music; pageant for the victory of Lepanto.
Italian painter. He was a friend of Leonardo da Vinci, whose influence appears in some of his work. On the polyptych in the Church of S Martino, Treviglio, he collaborated with Bernardino Butinone.
Ancient Greek painter, who, like Apelles, was invoked in the Renaissance as a symbol of artistic achievement, despite the lack of surviving paintings. Pliny the Elder's story, for example, that Zeuxis, when asked to paint a picture of Helen of Troy , took five women and constructed the portrait from the finest features of each, was the subject of frescoes by Domenico Beccafumi and Giorgio Vasari, and was also said to have inspired Raphael. Likewise, Lucian's ekphrasis of Zeuxis' Centaur Family inspired a drawing in imitation by Albrecht Dürer in 1505.
Polish organist and composer. He composed offertories and communions for the service of the whole year. He was in the service of the archbishop of
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Publication information: Book title: The Hutchinson Encyclopedia of the Renaissance. Contributors: David Rundle - Editor. Publisher: Westview Press. Place of publication: Boulder, CO. Publication year: 1999. Page number: 416.