Toward a Unified Theory of Problem Solving: Views from the Content Domains

By Mike U. Smith | Go to book overview
Save to active project

present task to previous tasks. They then carefully monitor and evaluate the progress of the selected strategy, making modifications as needed. Trainees must be explicitly taught these executive control and monitoring processes and must be given practice on their use in context.

In sum, we have presented the view that in order to teach general problemsolving skills we must understand how domain-dependent (local) knowledge and domain-independent (global) knowledge are to be combined with heuristics, executive control, and self-regulatory processes. The mechanism that we have suggested to account for transfer is the use of executive control strategies and metacognitive strategies. These strategies are used by trainees to analyze the situation and perceive the similarity between novel situations and past situations. On the basis of the perceived similarity between the two tasks, the solver then selects an appropriate plan of action for locating the malfunction, implements that plan, evaluates the effectiveness of the strategy, and selects an alternative plan or modifies the existing one as needed.

What remains an issue of concern for training not addressed by our research is that of the ontogeny of expertise and the development of the associated cognitive structures, particularly the development of skills that are transferable to other domains. Anderson ( 1983) has suggested that the acquisition of declarative knowledge gives rise to procedural knowledge, which becomes "automatic" or compiled knowledge with extended use. To date, however, few if any studies have supported Anderson's claim that declarative knowledge is acquired prior to and gives rise to procedural knowledge. In our most recent studies ( Llaneras, Perez, & Swezey, in press), we have attempted to investigate the effects of order of knowledge presentation and have found that, for our experimental tasks, it matters little whether declarative or procedural knowledge is presented first. Knowing what knowledge is acquired first by experts and how that knowledge is acquired would provide us with a good idea of how to order and structure the content of training.

The views expressed are the author's and not necessarily those of the Army Research Institute, the Department of the Army, or the Department of Defense.


REFERENCES

Anderson, J. R. ( 1983). The architecture of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Anderson, J. R. ( 1987). "Skill acquisition: Compilation of weak-method solutions". Psychological Review, 94, 192-210.

Baldwin, R. D. ( 1978). Training the electronics maintenance technician (HumRRO Professional Paper 7-78). Alexandria, VA: Human Resources Research Organization.

Brigham, F., & Laios, L. ( 1975). "Operator performance in the control of a laboratory process plant". Ergonomics, 26, 669-686.

-148-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Toward a Unified Theory of Problem Solving: Views from the Content Domains
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen
/ 164

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?