African Americans and the New Policy Consensus: Retreat of the Liberal State?

By Marilyn E. Lashley; Melanie Njeri Jackson | Go to book overview
collar, and professional workers, they are not distinguished from other special interest groups in this chapter. It is also acknowledged that unions, when ethnically constituted, also have abetted machine politics. Further, it is important to note that the negative connotations associated with special interest politics is a relatively recent phenomenon.
14.
It is important to note that the city's shrinking tax base, deindustrialization, shifting demographics, and job loss also contributed to the erosion of legislators' abilities to earmark resources for their demographic constituencies.
15.
For a comprehensive analysis of African Americans and patronage, see William Grimshaw , 1992.
16.
See John J. Harrigan, 1985, pp. 5, 376-377; James L. Sundquist, Making Federalism Work: A Study of Program Coordination at the Community Level ( Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1969), pp. 3-5; and John A. Weicher, Urban Renewal: National Program for Local Problems ( Washington, D.C.: AEI, 1972), p. 6.
17.
I do not mean to minimize the significant role that white voters also played in dismantling patronage here. See Shakman v. Democratic Organization of Cook County et al. The Shakman decree of 1972 prohibits the firing of local government employees on political grounds.
18.
See Rufus Browning, Dale Marshall, and David Tabb, Racial Politics in American Cities ( New York: Longman, 1990); William Grimshaw, 1992; and Adolph Reed Jr. , Jesse Jackson Phenomenon ( New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986).

REFERENCES

Banfield Edward C., and James Q. Wilson. 1963. City Politics. New York: Vintage Books.

Bentley Arthur Fisher. 1908. The Process of Government: A Study of Social Pressures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cain Bruce. 1992. "Voting Rights and Democratic Theory: Toward a Color-Blind Society." In Controversies in Minority Voting, edited by Bernard Grofman and Chandler Davidson. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution.

Dye Thomas. 1987. Understanding Public Policy. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Elkins Stephen L. 1987. City and Regime in the American Public. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Erie Steven. 1988. Rainbow's End: Irish-Americans and the Dilemmas of Urban Machine Politics, 1840-1985. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Greider William. 1992. Who Will Tell the People: Betrayal of American Democracy. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Grimshaw William. 1992. Bitter Fruit: Black Politics and the Chicago Machine. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Grofman Bernard, and Chandler Davidson. 1992. Controversies in Minority Voting. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution.

Grofman Bernard, Arend Lijhart, Robert McKay, and Howard Scarrow. 1982. Representation and Redistricting Issues. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books.

Guterbock Thomas M. 1980. Machine Politics in Transition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Harrigan John J. 1985. Political Change in the Metropolis. Boston: Little, Brown & Company.

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