Selected Chronology and Exhibition History: Cuban Art since the Revolution
The ISA, visual arts building.
|Triumph of the Cuban Revolution. Fidel Castro assumes
power in January.|
|ICAIC. Instituto Cubano del Arte e Industria
Cinematográficos (Cuban Institute of Cinematographic Art
and Industry) is created by the Revolutionary government,
with Alfredo Guevara as its first president.|
|Diplomatic Ties Severed. In January, the U.S. breaks off
diplomatic relations with Cuba.|
|Operation Peter Pan. Beginning in late 1960 and continuing through 1962, approximately 15,000 children are sent
out of Cuba by their families, in the fear that parental
authority will be transferred to the Cuban state and spurred
by rumors that Cuban children will be sent to the Soviet
Union. Twelve-year-old Ana Mendieta, later to become
one of Cuba's most important artists and the first
Cuban-American artist to exhibit back in Cuba, is among
the children who arrive in the U.S.|
|Prohibition of the magazine Lunes de Revolución (whose
writers include Guillermo Cabrera Infante, Carlos Franqui,
Edmundo Desnoes, and Ambrosio Fornet). The short film P.M. (directed by
Sabá Cabrera Infante and
) is censored for showing allegedly offensive images
of Havana's nightlife. These are two early examples of the
new governmental control over art.|
|Palabras a los intelectuales (Words to the
Intellectuals). In June, the Cuban intellectual community
holds a series of meetings with Armando Hart Dávalos, minister of education; Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado, president of
the republic; and Fidel Castro, prime minister. In the final
meeting Castro declares the famous sentence: "Within the
Revolution, everything; outside the Revolution, nothing."
The moral and political commitment of the artist to society
is stated in the Constitution of the Republic of Cuba
|UNEAC. On August 22, the national union of writers and
artists of Cuba is founded in Havana. (The current president
is Abel Prieto, and UNEAC now has 3,751 members.)|
|U.S. Embargo. In February, the U.S. imposes a full trade
embargo against Cuba.|
|ENA. Escuela Nacional de Arte (National School of Art) is
created by the Cuban government for the purpose of offering art instruction to students of all socioeconomic backgrounds. In the 1960s it serves as a meeting place for artists
such as Sebastián Matta, Antonio Saura, and Wifredo Lam,
who give lectures to students. The school is founded in Havana's former exclusive country club.|
|Galería Habana in Havana is founded.|
1965-67UMAP Cuban artists and writers are among those interned
in labor camps known as Unidades Militares de Ayuda a la
Producción (Military Units to Assist Production), for reasons
of political dissent or sexual orientation.
1967Salon de Mayo. An international group of artists, including
Cuban artists such as Wifredo Lam, Chago, and René
Portocarrero, create a collective mural in Havana.
|Soviet Union starts to provide economic assistance to Cuba.|
|First National Congress of Education and Culture. At
this conference held by the government, art is defined as an
"arm of the Revolution"; "extravagance" and homosexuality, among other "social evils," are criticized. The Congress
promotes the decommercialization of art, the involvement
of art in daily life, and the importance of the political
aspects of art over the aesthetic. Government censorship of
the arts intensifies.|
|Padilla Case. The writer Heberto Padilla is jailed when the
government criticizes his collection of poetry Fuera del
juego (Out of the Game), which won the Julián del Casal
Prize awarded by the UNEAC in 1968. He is accused of anti-
patriotism and demoralizing the Cuban people.|
|Ministry of Culture is founded.|
|ISA. Instituto Superior de Arte (Graduate School of Art) is
founded, providing students with intensive studio and theoretical visual and performing arts training. From this school
emerges the first generation of Cuban artists fully trained
during the Cuban Revolution, later known as the 1980s
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Art Cuba:The New Generation.
Contributors: Holly Block - Editor, Cola Franzen - Translator, Marguerite Feitlowitz - Translator.
Publisher: Harry N. Abrams.
Place of publication: New York.
Publication year: 2001.
Page number: 160.
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