5 The ecology of crime
Patterns of Crime Variation in City AreasThe first systematic and sustained effort to investigate the
regularities in the variation of crime within a large city in
the United States started in Chicago in 1921. This analysis of
the delinquency areas of Chicago by Clifford Shaw and his associates set off a wave of studies in other cities and a spirited debate
about the interpretation of the findings, which is still being fed
by new studies using different techniques, different measures,
and competing theories.This development has been greatly
aided by the growth and increasing sophistication of the field of
human ecology which involves the study of the relationship of
human individuals and groups to their physical, social, and cultural environment by geographers, demographers, and other social scientists. The National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement published the second major ecological study of the Institute of Juvenile Research in Chicago in 1931. This study was of
particular significance since it demonstrated that the characteristic patterns for delinquency rates in Chicago could also be found
in Philadelphia, Richmond, Cleveland, Birmingham, Denver,
and Seattle.Three of their major findings about the distribution
of delinquency rates have been repeatedly borne out in subsequent studies, subject only to local and usually accountable
|1. ||Juvenile delinquents are not distributed uniformly over the City
of Chicago but tend to be concentrated in areas adjacent to the central business district and to heavy industrial areas.|
|2. ||There are wide variations in the rates of delinquents between
areas in Chicago.|
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Crime in a Free Society:Selections from the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice.
Contributors: Robert W. Winslow - Author.
Publisher: Dickenson Publishing.
Place of publication: Belmont, CA.
Publication year: 1968.
Page number: 142.
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