Proceedings of CSCL '97: The Second International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning, December 10-14, 1997, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

By Rogers Hall; Naomi Miyake et al. | Go to book overview
Save to active project

and knowledge pieces. Such co-construction processes are expected to occur while people are engaged in explanatory activities during collaboration when learning other types of knowledge (e.g., physics) as well. And the shared representation that results from such activities seems to be the basis for efficient team performance such as in pilots flying airplane.

One important question that remains is what kind of co-construction activities occur during collaboration that result in shared knowledge as well as improved learning. More analyses are planned to address exactly what is happening during the interaction itself. One such analysis is to examine the explanatory activities of the students. It has been widely accepted that engaging in active learning such as generating self- explanations is beneficial to learning ( Chi et al., 1994). Generating explanations during collaboration, however, is more complicated than generating explanations to oneself: what one generates is often dependent on one's partner's action and explanations are often generated together with a partner rather than alone.

Although it can be expected that both self- constructed and co-constructed explanations are important to learning, one can ask about the relationship between self-constructed versus co- constructed knowledge. It will be interesting to examine how much shared explanatory activities such as co-construction contributed to learning as compared to self-explanation.

Finally, the results of this study have strong implications for designing a computer support system for collaborative learning. First of all, the importance of constructing a shared representation suggests that it is critical for a computer system to provide a external representation in which participants can negotiate their representation. For example, the lack of such an interface to negotiate shared representation may explain why girls playing together on one computer solved more puzzles than those who worked side-by-side on two computers ( Inkpen, Booth, Klawe, & Upitis, 1995). The construction of shared representation may be promoted by providing a shared representational medium. Second, while some computer-support systems for collaborative work provide a window in which participants can communicate with each other, they often fail to create social obligation to interact. Often in computer mediated interaction, participants do not need to respond to the other's input unless they want to, and it is quite easy for participants to operate independently. Thus, participants might be "collaborating" in the sense that they are connected through a computer terminal, but there is little interaction of the sort that is the key to constructing a shared representation. For co-construction to occur, participants must not only make a contribution, but must also get their contribution to be accepted by their partner ( Clark & Schaefer, 1989). It is thus critical for computer systems that support collaborative learning to create an environment in which participants actively interact with their partner. A deeper understanding of how individuals co-construct knowledge will provide important clues to designing more effective computer supported collaborative learning environments.


References

Azmitia, M. ( 1988). "Peer interaction and problem solving: When are two heads better than one?" Child Development, 59, 87-96.

Bryant, P. ( 1982). "The role of conflict and agreement between intellectual strategies in children's ideas about measurement". British Journal of Psychology, 73, 243-251.

Chi, M. T. H., de N. Leeuw, Chiu, M., & LaVancher, C. ( 1994). "Eliciting self explanations improves understanding". Cognitive Science, 18, 439-477.

Clark, H. H., & Brennan, S. E. ( 1991). "Grounding in communication". In L. B. Resnick, J. M. Levine, & S. D. Teasley (Eds.), Perspectives on socially shared cognition (pp. 127-149). Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association.

Clark, H. H., & Schaefer, E. F. ( 1989). "Contributing to discourse". Cognitive Science, 13, 259-294.

Doise, W., Mugny, G., & Perret-Clermont, A. ( 1975). "Social interaction and the development of cognitive operations". European Journal of Social Psychology, 5( 3), 367-383.

Doise, W., Mugny, G., & Perret-Clermont, A. ( 1976). "Social interaction and cognitive development: Further evidence". European Journal of Social Psychology, 6, 245-247.

Ellis, S., Klahr, D., & Siegler, R. S. ( 1993). Effects of feedback and collaboration on changes in children's use of mathematical rules. A paper presented in Society for Research in Child Development. New Orleans.

Gabbert, B., Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. ( 1986). "Cooperative learning, group-to individual transfer, process gain, and the acquisition of cognitive reasoning strategies". The Journal of Psychology, 120( 3), 265-278.

Hardin, C., & Higgins, E. T. ( 1996). Shared reality: How social verification makes the subjective objective? In R. M. Sorrentino & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior (Vol. 3). New York: Guildford.

-127-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Proceedings of CSCL '97: The Second International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning, December 10-14, 1997, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen
/ 318

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?