Clinical Implications of Attachment

By Jay Belsky; Teresa Nezworski | Go to book overview

8
Attachment and the Development of Behavior Problems

John E. Bates Kathryn Bayles Indiana University

Some children do well in their social relationships; they enjoy others and are enjoyed, and they develop a wide range of adaptive skills. However, as many as 15% of children do not develop as well; they show problem behaviors and signs of internal and interpersonal disturbance. It is not apparent how these major variations in children's adaptations come about, even when we have the benefit of hindsight. How do some children attain a wealth of socially valued roles, whereas others are comparatively poverty- stricken, and still others attain notoriety, with a wealth of negative roles? Our major goal is greater understanding of how children's behavior problems develop. Attachment concepts are increasingly relevant to this goal, and we use them as one way of examining the paths individual children follow toward differing social adaptations.

There has been an impressive accumulation of research in the past 15 years on attachment security; the literature has been suggesting it as a major factor in children's social competence and emotional adjustment outcomes (e.g., Belsky & Isabella, this volume; Lamb, Thompson, Gardner, & Charnov, 1985; Sroufe, 1983). The attachment literature leads toward a rich model of how personality develops, registering impressive gains in empirical support for the claim that there are coherent patterns of psychosocial development. The data generally support the argument that early characteristics of the child in a basic relationship, especially the infant-mother one, predict socially meaningful characteristics at later times, even ones observed in relationships with peers and teachers. How it may be that attachment security research has been able to predict developmental outcomes is discussed later. We also discuss recent attachment

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Clinical Implications of Attachment
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page v
  • Contents vii
  • Contributors xiii
  • Preface xv
  • I General Issues 1
  • 1: Clinical Implications of Attachment 3
  • References 15
  • 2: The Role of Infant-Caregiver Attachment in Development 18
  • Acknowledgment 30
  • Appendix: Attachment, Patterns of Adaptation, Continuity and Change 30
  • References 35
  • II Determinants of Attachment Security and Insecurity 39
  • 3: Maternal, Infant, and Social-Contextual Determinants of Attachment Security 41
  • Appendix: Attachment, Patterns of Adaptation, Continuity and Change 88
  • 4: Maternal Antecedents of Attachment Quality 95
  • Introduction 131
  • Appendix: Attachment, Patterns of Adaptation, Continuity and Change 132
  • 5: Relationships at Risk 136
  • Acknowledgments 164
  • References 164
  • References 167
  • III Consequences of Attachment Security and Insecurity 175
  • 6: Attachment and the Ontogeny of Conduct Problems 177
  • References 210
  • Summary and Conclusions 241
  • References 246
  • References 246
  • 8: Attachment and the Development of Behavior Problems 253
  • References 295
  • 9: Avoidance and Its Relation to Other Defensive Processes 300
  • Acknowledgments 318
  • References 318
  • IV Clinical Applications 325
  • 10: Clinical Applications of Attachment Theory 327
  • References 348
  • 11: Intervention in Insecure Infant Attachment 352
  • References 382
  • 12: A Clinical Approach to Attachment 387
  • References 415
  • Author Index 425
  • Subject Index 435
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