Clinical Implications of Attachment

By Jay Belsky; Teresa Nezworski | Go to book overview

available (from parents' history, feelings, and perceptions; ongoing infant caregiver and family observations; etc.); (b) sensitive to the formation of a therapeutic relationship; and (c) both broad enough to conceptualize the overall adaptive process, and specific enough to pinpoint defects or constrictions in adaptive developmental pathways. A framework based on a developmental structuralist model ( Greenspan, 1981) for operationalizing the developmental process was suggested. This framework provides a way of conceptualizing attachment as an ongoing process that becomes organized and reorganized at each stage of development in keeping with new maturational and experiential opportunities.

Concrete attachments, where interest in the world and regulation are key, characterize the first stage of attachments. Personal, joyful, synchronous attachments characterize the second. Purposeful, interactive attachment patterns with a broadening range of affect signify the third stage. The ability to integrate and conceptualize, at the behavioral level, different interpersonal thematic-affective domains (including dependence and independence, passivity, and activity, etc.), characterizes the fourth stage, conceptual integrated attachments. The ability to elevate behaviors and affect to a higher plane (i.e., to create internal emotional imagery) and, therefore, represent attachments and relationships, indicates the emerging of the fifth stage. The ability to differentiate one's internal world of imagery into clear organization of self and nonself, along affective and temperal and spacial dimensions, characterizes the sixth stage.

By viewing attachment as a developmental process at the core of the formation of intrapsychic structure and personality, we avoid unproductive theoretical polarities (e.g., attachment doesn't start until we see separation or stranger anxiety, etc.) and provide a clinical framework that is sensitive to the importance of the human relationship in the formation of psychological structure and function.


REFERENCES

Ainsworth M. D. S. ( 1973). "The development of infant-mother attachment". In B. M. Caldwell & H. N. Riociuti (Eds.), Review of child development research (pp. 1-194). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Ainsworth M. D. S. ( 1980). "Attachment and child abuse". In G. Gerbner, C. Ross, & E. Zigler (Eds.), Child abuse: An agenda for action (pp. 35-47). New York: Oxford University Press.

Ainsworth M. D. S., Bell S. M., & Stayton D. ( 1971). "Individual differences in strange situation behavior of one-year-olds". In H. R. Schaffer

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Clinical Implications of Attachment
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page v
  • Contents vii
  • Contributors xiii
  • Preface xv
  • I General Issues 1
  • 1: Clinical Implications of Attachment 3
  • References 15
  • 2: The Role of Infant-Caregiver Attachment in Development 18
  • Acknowledgment 30
  • Appendix: Attachment, Patterns of Adaptation, Continuity and Change 30
  • References 35
  • II Determinants of Attachment Security and Insecurity 39
  • 3: Maternal, Infant, and Social-Contextual Determinants of Attachment Security 41
  • Appendix: Attachment, Patterns of Adaptation, Continuity and Change 88
  • 4: Maternal Antecedents of Attachment Quality 95
  • Introduction 131
  • Appendix: Attachment, Patterns of Adaptation, Continuity and Change 132
  • 5: Relationships at Risk 136
  • Acknowledgments 164
  • References 164
  • References 167
  • III Consequences of Attachment Security and Insecurity 175
  • 6: Attachment and the Ontogeny of Conduct Problems 177
  • References 210
  • Summary and Conclusions 241
  • References 246
  • References 246
  • 8: Attachment and the Development of Behavior Problems 253
  • References 295
  • 9: Avoidance and Its Relation to Other Defensive Processes 300
  • Acknowledgments 318
  • References 318
  • IV Clinical Applications 325
  • 10: Clinical Applications of Attachment Theory 327
  • References 348
  • 11: Intervention in Insecure Infant Attachment 352
  • References 382
  • 12: A Clinical Approach to Attachment 387
  • References 415
  • Author Index 425
  • Subject Index 435
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