Sociolinguistic Attitudes and Issues in Contemporary Britain
|English and other languages|
|England English and the English of other parts of the United Kingdom|
|British and American English|
|Standard and nonstandard varieties|
|Dialect and accent|
|Regional and social varieties|
|Urban and rural varieties|
|Ethnic varieties and the standard|
|Varieties and the schools|
As in the United States, English is only one of the languages spoken in the nation, although in the number of its speakers and its role in society, it is the dominant language, with no significant competition. In the United Kingdom, English interacts with the Celtic languages, Welsh and Scots Gaelic particularly. Other Celtic tongues, such as Cornish and Manx, are no longer the first speech of a community, and Irish Gaelic is more usual in the Irish Republic than in Northern Ireland. Other languages with long-standing use in the British Isles are the French of the Channel Islands, Orkney and Shetland Norn, Romani and Angloromani, and two argots, Sheita and Polari, that may be the remnants of full languages. A number of more recent immigrant languages are also represented.
The relationship between English and certain non-English languages in the United Kingdom is strikingly different from the relationship between English
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Publication information: Book title: English in Its Social Contexts:Essays in Historical Sociolinguistics. Contributors: Tim William MacHan - Editor, Charles T. Scott - Editor. Publisher: Oxford University Press. Place of publication: New York. Publication year: 1992. Page number: 155.