The Papal Monarchy: The Western Church from 1050 to 1250

By Colin Morris | Go to book overview

7
THE CONFLICT RENEWED: THE QUESTION OF INVESTITURE (1099-1122)

i. Paschal II (1099-1118)

At the turn of the century a series of deaths marked the end of the long-continued schism in the Roman Church. Urban II died at Rome on 29 July 1099, with his hold on the city still insecure. On 13 August the cardinals of his party elected Rainier, cardinal-priest of San Clemente, who took the title of Paschal II. Like his predecessor he was a monk who had come to Rome in the time of Gregory VII, entered papal service, and acted as a legate. His situation was simplified by the death in September 1100 of Clement III. Thereafter, there was no serious anti-pope. Several elections were attempted, but in most cases with little support from the imperial court. With the death in 1101 of the young anti-king Conrad, a further obstacle to mutual recognition by pope and emperor was removed, and neither side was inclined to continue the state of schism within the papacy or empire. In the long series of negotiations which followed, the popes showed a willingness to compromise on some vital issues. In the course of the settlement with Henry V in 1105-6, they did not insist on the removal of all bishops and clergy ordained in obedience to Clement. Nor was there any proposal to renew the onslaught upon simony and concubinage which had marked the early stages of papal reform, and occasioned the clash with the German bishops in the early days of Gregory VII. Simony was regarded with as much abhorrence as ever, but as far as we know the possibility was never even considered of requiring, as part of a settlement, the removal of clergy in Henry's obedience who had obtained their offices for money. We can only guess why such a course of action was ignored: the consciousness may have dawned by now that a charge of Simony was difficult to prove and the prosecutions would have been ruinous for better relations between papacy and empire. Perhaps also the Gregorians were aware of the

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