The last few chapters have been concerned with the building up of Christendom, that is with the growing consciousness of participation in a society directed by obedience to God and regulated by his representatives, the clergy. This development had a corollary in increasing hostility to groups who were seen not to be part of Christendom. Although to our eyes Christian society was more securely organized in 1200 than it had been in 1050, it was also much more aware of the threats which were posed by Islam, Judaism, heresy, and sorcery. These forces were 'demonized', seen as a conspiracy by the devil to destroy the faith. Sometimes they were literally thought to be conspirators, an idea which can be found as early as Raoul Glaber's report that the Jews of Orléans had advised Caliph Hakim to destroy the church of the Holy Sepulchre in 1009; more usually they were all seen as servants of the devil, and features of one group were transferred quite wrongly to the others. This chapter will be concerned with the emergence of religious opposition within western European society.
'The catholic faith has fought and has crushed, conquered and annihilated the blasphemies of the heretics, so that either there are no more heretics or they do not dare to show themselves.' The triumph of catholicism seemed complete and was celebrated in these words in a sermon of Bishop Herbert Losinga of Norwich ( 1091-1119).1 Scholars still had a theoretical knowledge of the great heresies of the patristic period listed by Isidore of Seville, but were ill-informed as to their content, and it was so long since they had been living movements that the word 'heresy' no longer had a clear meaning. The heresy of which most was heard in the period of papal reform had little to do with erroneous belief: 'simony was the only survivor____________________