International Handbook on Mental Health Policy

By Donna R. Kemp | Go to book overview

14
People's Republic of China

Yu-cun Shen


OVERVIEW

The People's Republic of China is situated in the southeastern part of the Eurasian continent, on the west coast of the Pacific Ocean. By territory the world's secondlargest country, China has a land area of about 9.6 million square kilometers, making up 6.5 percent of the earth's land mass.

China is a multinational country with the most people in the world. According to the results of the fourth national census carried out in July 1990, the population of the country was 1,160,017,381 ("The 1990 Census," 1990). The Han nationality made up approximately 94 percent of the total population. The agricultural population constituted around 80 percent. In the mainland's thirty provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities, each family had an average of 3.96 persons, and the sex ratio (female taken as 100) was 106.6 percent. The age distribution, based on the sampled sum of 10.01 percent from the 1990 census, was 27.70 percent children aged 0-14 years, 63.71 percent adolescents and adults aged 15-59 years, and 8.59 percent people 60 years and over (65 years and over, 5.58 percent).

China is one of the oldest countries with one of the world's earliest civilizations. It has a rich and ancient culture with about five thousand years of history. Yet it is quite young in experiencing the developments of modern industrialization and agriculture. The founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 ended the history of colonialism that had existed for more than ten decades. Through the work of more than thirty years, the Chinese people have made great progress in the development of industry, agriculture, science, and culture. The living standard of the people has also increased. The average yearly income per person increased from Renminbi (RMB) 57 yuan in 1952 to 601.5 yuan in 1989 for

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International Handbook on Mental Health Policy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xi
  • Foreword xv
  • 1: An Overview of Mental Health Policy from an International Perspective 1
  • 2: Argentina 19
  • 3: Canada 45
  • Notes 65
  • References 65
  • 4: Chile 67
  • 5: India 79
  • References 106
  • 6: Israel 109
  • Notes 134
  • Notes 135
  • 7: Italy 139
  • References 154
  • 8: Japan 159
  • Notes 174
  • 9: Korea 177
  • Notes 195
  • 10: The Netherlands 197
  • Notes 215
  • New Zealand 217
  • 12: Nigeria 253
  • Notes 269
  • Pakistan 273
  • Notes 286
  • 14: People's Republic of China 287
  • Notes 300
  • 15: Romania 303
  • References 329
  • 16: Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States 331
  • References 350
  • References 350
  • 17: Audi Arabia 353
  • References 365
  • 18: Turkey 367
  • References 388
  • 19: The United Kingdom 391
  • References 410
  • 20: The United States 413
  • References 442
  • References 443
  • 21: Zambia 447
  • References 474
  • Index 477
  • About the Contributors 483
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