International Handbook on Mental Health Policy

By Donna R. Kemp | Go to book overview

19
The United Kingdom

Nigel Goldie and Liz Sayce


OVERVIEW

The United Kingdom in northwest Europe consists of one large island (Britain), a small part of a second island (Northern Ireland), and a number of lesser islands scattered around the coasts. It comprises four constituent countries or regions: England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. The total land covered is 94,500 square miles.

The population is 57,200,000, concentrated heavily in urban centers in England. Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland are predominantly rural. Women outnumber men: 29,300,000 women as compared to 27,900,000 men. People under eighteen account for 13 million and those over sixty-five for 10.5 million. The elderly population is rising steadily and is expected to peak at 14.5 million in the year 2034 (Office of Population and Census, 1989).

The United Kingdom is historically a multiethnic area and has experienced successive waves of immigration of groups including Normans ( eleventh century), Huguenots ( sixteenth century), Jewish people ( nineteenth century), and Eastern Europeans ( twentieth century). In the second half of the twentieth century significant immigration occurred from newly independent ex-British colonies, notably countries in the West Indies and the Indian subcontinent, to fill a postwar labor shortage. Since 1971 immigration policy has become increasingly restrictive and effectively discriminates against black people, although white immigration from British Commonwealth countries such as Australia and Canada continues. Present-day Britain includes approximately 2.5 million people from black and ethnic minority communities, including sizeable Afro-Caribbean, Asian, and Irish groups and smaller populations such as Chinese, Vietnamese, Greek and Turkish Cypriot, Polish, and Somali. Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland,

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International Handbook on Mental Health Policy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xi
  • Foreword xv
  • 1: An Overview of Mental Health Policy from an International Perspective 1
  • 2: Argentina 19
  • 3: Canada 45
  • Notes 65
  • References 65
  • 4: Chile 67
  • 5: India 79
  • References 106
  • 6: Israel 109
  • Notes 134
  • Notes 135
  • 7: Italy 139
  • References 154
  • 8: Japan 159
  • Notes 174
  • 9: Korea 177
  • Notes 195
  • 10: The Netherlands 197
  • Notes 215
  • New Zealand 217
  • 12: Nigeria 253
  • Notes 269
  • Pakistan 273
  • Notes 286
  • 14: People's Republic of China 287
  • Notes 300
  • 15: Romania 303
  • References 329
  • 16: Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States 331
  • References 350
  • References 350
  • 17: Audi Arabia 353
  • References 365
  • 18: Turkey 367
  • References 388
  • 19: The United Kingdom 391
  • References 410
  • 20: The United States 413
  • References 442
  • References 443
  • 21: Zambia 447
  • References 474
  • Index 477
  • About the Contributors 483
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