Duelling Languages: Grammatical Structure in Codeswitching

By Carol Myers-Scotton | Go to book overview
Save to active project

Regulating Two at Once, I:
The Matrix Language-Frame Model


This chapter and the following one present my current version of a frame-based model of CS. It is called the Matrix Language-Frame (MLF) model. This name highlights its two crucial aspects: (1) CS is envisioned as taking place within the constraints of a conceptual frame; (2) the frame is largely set by semantic and morphosyntactic procedures dictated by only one of the two (or more) languages participating in CS, the Matrix Language (ML). The other language is called the Embedded Language (EL). In some interactions in some communities, CS may involve more than two languages; while there may be more than one EL in such cases, there is always only one ML.

How the frame of ML+EL constituents is structured is the main topic of this chapter. A detailed treatment is offered of what is called the ML Hypothesis and its two principles, the Morpheme-Order Principle and the System Morpheme Principle. These principles provide structural descriptions of ML+EL constituents. However, this discussion will not be entirely completed until Chapter 5.

The Goals of the MLF Model

The MLF model has two main goals. First, it seeks to predict the form of CS utterances. There are two complementary predictions:

It predicts which utterances containing CS forms will be considered well-formed (and which, therefore, are predicted to be possible occurrences).

It predicts which such utterances are not well-formed and therefore will not occur, unless they are stylistically marked (in order to serve some socio-pragmatic purpose, such as emphasis). Such possibilities are discussed briefly in Chapter 8.


Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Cite this page

Cited page

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Duelling Languages: Grammatical Structure in Codeswitching


Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen
/ 290

matching results for page

Cited passage

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?