bution to the improvement of the political and economic transition of the Russian society. Of course, migration difficulties represent only a small part of Russia's transition problems. But
since migration processes affect the political, social, and economic systems--at virtually all levels of the society--finding
solutions should be a high priority.
On national politics under the czars, see Rywkin 1988.
The "near abroad" is the official Russian term for the states of the former Soviet Union.
The Russian Federal Migrations Service was established by a parliamentary decree in 1992. The FMS deals with refugees and immigrants who live
in Russia but is also concerned with emigration and domestic migration. Its
main task is the organization of necessary measures to provide for refugees
and evacuees as well as immigrants from abroad. The organization is
responsible for immigrating Russian minorities, war refugees from the former Soviet Union, and refugees from the third world; it also has numerous
other obligations related to domestic migration movements. Many specific
problems arise from the difficulties of financing all these responsibilities
out of the allotted budget.
It is not clear why the UNECE mentioned only 45,000 refugees, with
11,000 domestic refugees in the Russian Federation, on 12 December 1993
( UNECE 1994b, 21).
The uncompromising diligence with which the Chechens have forced their
independence from Russia was presumably aided by the Russian "anti-
Chechenism" that has reigned since the end of the eighties. Even highly
ranked officials and politicians continue to speak of the Chechen mafia,
and in the nineties the word Chechen was often synonymous with criminal
( Batalov 1995, 5).
Russia's role in the conflict, however, remains unclear. Some believe that Russia encouraged the Ingushian government to begin the war ( Oswald 1993, 45): Russia wanted Ingushia to break its alliance with Chechnya, and
in return Ingushia would regain the land that Stalin had once confiscated
( "Nation oder Vieh" 1992, 194).
For more detail, see Kudryavtsev 1993.
The term Meskhets was coined in the fifties to denote the Turkish-speaking people of various origins (Armenian, Georgian, Kurdish) who were
deported in 1944 under Stalin (for more details, see Ermolov 1990, 16-25; Osipov 1994).
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Migrants, Refugees, and Foreign Policy:U.S. and German Policies toward Countries of Origin.
Contributors: Rainer Münz - Editor.
Publisher: Berghahn Books.
Place of publication: Providence, RI.
Publication year: 1997.
Page number: 109.
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