This does not apply to the immigration of ethnic Germans from Eastern
Europe and the FSU. In this paper, the special case of ethnic German immigrants will not be considered.
The new Ostpolitik was started by the new coalition between social and
liberal democrats in the late sixties as a more cooperative and less ideological approach toward relations with East European countries and the Soviet Union.
3. This number includes 1.5 to 2 million after the revolution, approximately
2 million during and after World War II, and at least 1.2 million emigrants between 1950 and 1990 ( Heitman 1987, 11; Heitman 1991, 5; Stad nik 1991, 8). 4.
This refers to the "Regulations on Entry to and Exit from the USSR" of June 1959. These were reviewed in 1970 and again in 1986 but were not
fundamentally amended ( Heitman 1987, 14-15).
In this context, the Jackson-Vanik amendment ( 1973) played a role, impeding trade unless Jews were allowed to leave freely. In addition, the Soviet
government signed the Helsinki accord ( 1975), pledging, among other
things, to facilitate freer movement of its citizens.
6. Emigrants' motives differed somewhat from group to group and changed over
time. National and religious discrimination, the desire to be reunited with
family, and economic and political dissatisfaction are among the most important reasons for emigration ( Zaslavsky and
Brym 1983; Heitman 1987). 7.
Because of numerous internal problems, however, the law was not due to
come into force until 1 January 1993 ( Zakon 1991).
Jews, Germans, and Greeks are an exception because they have states
abroad that accept them as citizens.
The weekly German newspaper Der Spiegel noted there was "fear of a mass
flight" and reported that 62 percent of West and East Germans were afraid
of the hundreds and thousands of Soviet citizens who would want to leave
the former Soviet Union and emigrate to the West (1991, 142).
This may partly be explained by the increasing number of ethnic Germans
who live in mixed marriages and come to Germany with their relatives.
The inflow (outflow) statistics are based on registration forms, which document the place of residence. Obviously, these statistics are problematic in
many ways. For example, some foreigners (also asylum seekers) who come
to the FRG register, while others do not. In addition, some register but do
not report their departure.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Migrants, Refugees, and Foreign Policy:U.S. and German Policies toward Countries of Origin.
Contributors: Rainer Münz - Editor.
Publisher: Berghahn Books.
Place of publication: Providence, RI.
Publication year: 1997.
Page number: 162.
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