Migrants, Refugees, and Foreign Policy: U.S. and German Policies toward Countries of Origin

By Rainer Münz | Go to book overview

Notes
1.
vI would like to acknowledge support for this study from the German American Academic Council, which funded the Project of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences on German-American Migration and Refugee Policies. This paper was prepared for the project's working group on policies toward countries of origin. I benefited from the comments of members of the working group at its meetings at the House of the American Academy in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and in Ladenburg, Germany, and from participants of the Inter-University Seminar on International Migration held at M.I.T. My thanks for research assistance to Steven Wilkinson and for suggestions and comments to Klaus J. Bade, David A. Martin, Philip Martin, Rainer Münz, Barry Posen, Rosemarie Rogers, and Peter Schuck, as well as suggestions from the editors and anonymous reviewers for International Security.
2.
For a particularly useful analysis of refugee flows in relation to ethnic conflicts, see the following essays in Brown 1993: chapter 1, "Causes and Implications of Ethnic Conflict,"1-25; Kathleen Newland, "Ethnic Conflict and Refugees,"143-63; and Barry R. Posen, "The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict,"103-24. Also see Loescher and Monahan 1990. For an attempt to specify some of the determinants of ethnic conflict, see Van Evera 1994, 5-39.
3.
These include the demands made by Eritreans for secession from Ethiopia; the war between Nigeria and the Ibos in the province of Biafra; the demand by East Pakistan (Bangladesh) for independence from Pakistan; the rebellion of Tibetans against Chinese rule; the Kachin, Shan, and Karen rebellions in Burma; the civil war between Christian Black Africans in southern Sudan and the Arab-dominated government; the conflicts between the Kurds and the governments of Iraq and Turkey; the demands made by Somalis in Djibouti and Ethiopia for separation and then unification with the Somali Republic; the demands made by Tuaregs in northern Mali for autonomy; the secessionist movements against India in Kashmir, Punjab, Nagaland, and Manipur; the conflict between Tamils in northern Sri Lanka and the Sinhalese-dominated government; the conflict between Bosnian Muslims, Croats, and Serbs in Bosnia; and the secessionist war by the Chechens against the Russian government.
4.
Examples of present or past secessionist conflicts include Eritrea, Chechnya, Kashmir, Biafra, Abkhazia, Ossetia, Western Sahara, Southern Sudan, Mali (Tauregs), Bangladesh, Tibet, Tamil Sri Lanka, and India (Punjab as well as Kashmir). Several of these conflicts have produced some of the largest refugee flows of the past decade.
5.
Nonsecessionist violent conflicts among ethnic groups include clashes between Tutsi and Hutu in Rwanda and Burundi, Serb-Muslim warfare in Bosnia, and Nepali-Tibetan conflicts in Bhutan.
6.
In 1969 large numbers of people fled China, Cuba, Eastern Europe, Chile, Bolivia, and Paraguay, and in the late 1970s and early 1980s many people fled Iran after the Islamic revolution. None of these countries has produced a significant new refugee flow in the 1990s.

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Migrants, Refugees, and Foreign Policy: U.S. and German Policies toward Countries of Origin
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction vii
  • Chapter 1 the Impact of German Policy on Refugee Flows from Former Yugoslavia 1
  • Notes 27
  • References 30
  • Chapter 2 the Impact of U.S. Policy on Migration from Mexico and the Caribbean 35
  • Notes 71
  • References 72
  • Chapter 3 Migration in the Russian Federation Since the Mid-1980s Refugees, Immigrants, and Emigrants 77
  • Summary and Conclusions 108
  • Notes 109
  • References 111
  • Chapter 4 German Policies Toward Ethnic German Minorities 117
  • References 140
  • Chapter 5 German Policies Toward Russia and Other Successor States 141
  • Conclusion 159
  • Notes 162
  • References 163
  • Chapter 6 the New Labor Migration as an Instrument of German Foreign Policy 165
  • References 178
  • Chapter 7 Bad Neighbors, Bad Neighborhoods an Inquiry into the Causes of Refugee Flows, 1969-1992 183
  • Conclusion 224
  • Notes 225
  • References 227
  • Chapter 8 Economic Instruments to Affect Countries of Origin 231
  • Conclusions 261
  • Notes 265
  • References 269
  • Chapter 9 Can Military Intervention Limit Refugee Flows? 273
  • Conclusion 309
  • Notes 313
  • References 319
  • Chapter 10 Conclusion - Policies to Reduce Refugee Flows and Pressures for Emigration 323
  • Conclusion 353
  • Notes 355
  • Notes on Contributors 357
  • Index 363
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