Migrants, Refugees, and Foreign Policy: U.S. and German Policies toward Countries of Origin

By Rainer Münz | Go to book overview

costs of humanitarian intervention. Alternatively, they might just wait until the rescuers depart.


Conclusion

This survey of the issues surrounding military intervention designed to affect the production of refugees constitutes a conceptual map of the issue. I have elucidated some stylized military causes of refugee flows: genocide/politicide, ethnic cleansing, repressive conquerors or repressive regimes, the dangerous environment of war, and the impoverishment caused by primitive armies that live off the land. I have also developed some archetypal military remedies for refugee problems: strategic bombing, safe zones, safe havens, enforced peace, and a full- scale war against assailant groups or states. With the exception of full-scale war, the remedies proposed are temporary expedients. They reduce hardship and save lives, but they do not solve the original political problems that produced the violence that produced the refugees. I did not offer a detailed analysis of the last remedy, because it falls under the purview of traditional strategic studies, and plenty has been written on the subject. It is probably true, however, that a full-scale war is the best military answer to refugees produced by cruel occupations or highly repressive indigenous regimes.

Relying on the theory of military compellence, I have elucidated some of the difficulties that will arise in trying to affect the political circumstances that produce refugees. Because I view the problem as one of conventional compellence, I deduce that the military requirements for success in any of these endeavors are substantial. Though any military strategist would echo Clausewitz's admonition that it is best to be very strong, particularly at the decisive point, this is particularly true for conventional compellence. Moreover, it will probably be necessary to use this force, and do so repeatedly. Therefore, I have reviewed the four military remedies in terms of their military logic and their tactical and logistical requirements.

Definitive conclusions are difficult without a more systematic effort to study the universe of cases of interventions that sought humanitarian goals in whole or in part. And given the wide

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Migrants, Refugees, and Foreign Policy: U.S. and German Policies toward Countries of Origin
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction vii
  • Chapter 1 the Impact of German Policy on Refugee Flows from Former Yugoslavia 1
  • Notes 27
  • References 30
  • Chapter 2 the Impact of U.S. Policy on Migration from Mexico and the Caribbean 35
  • Notes 71
  • References 72
  • Chapter 3 Migration in the Russian Federation Since the Mid-1980s Refugees, Immigrants, and Emigrants 77
  • Summary and Conclusions 108
  • Notes 109
  • References 111
  • Chapter 4 German Policies Toward Ethnic German Minorities 117
  • References 140
  • Chapter 5 German Policies Toward Russia and Other Successor States 141
  • Conclusion 159
  • Notes 162
  • References 163
  • Chapter 6 the New Labor Migration as an Instrument of German Foreign Policy 165
  • References 178
  • Chapter 7 Bad Neighbors, Bad Neighborhoods an Inquiry into the Causes of Refugee Flows, 1969-1992 183
  • Conclusion 224
  • Notes 225
  • References 227
  • Chapter 8 Economic Instruments to Affect Countries of Origin 231
  • Conclusions 261
  • Notes 265
  • References 269
  • Chapter 9 Can Military Intervention Limit Refugee Flows? 273
  • Conclusion 309
  • Notes 313
  • References 319
  • Chapter 10 Conclusion - Policies to Reduce Refugee Flows and Pressures for Emigration 323
  • Conclusion 353
  • Notes 355
  • Notes on Contributors 357
  • Index 363
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