viduals at risk, while deterring those who are not, but one must be cognizant of the variety of limitations, costs, and potential failures associated with these arrangements. Return schemes are also a useful policy tool, though they work best for the repatriation of refugees at the end of a conflict and are less useful in inducing labor migrants to return home or assisting their integration. Policies aimed at lowering the level of violence against civilians in countries engaged in a civil war or in political repression against opponents are worth greater attention than they have thus far received, particularly if advanced industrial countries are prepared to use their economic leverage and military power to impose restrictions on combatants and themselves refrain from the sale of mines and weapons.
These policy options offer no magic panaceas. Each case requires a careful analysis of what is appropriate. There are always costs and risks as well as possible beneficial outcomes, and what may work in one case may not in another. Once adopted, policies must be monitored, and in some instances, the time horizons are long. Policymakers in the United States and Germany should pay closer attention than they have in the past to linking migration and refugee issues to the full range of foreign policy tools in order to influence conditions within countries that force people to leave.