Understanding Impoverishment: The Consequences of Development-Induced Displacement

By Christopher McDowell | Go to book overview

planning and implementation of the updated action plan. Since they have been successfully resettled with quality housing built with rehabilitation assistance and are almost integrated with the host community, the restoration of livelihood and community organisation will help the displaced to become socially articulate once more.


Conclusion

It is obvious from the case study that the 'eight key dimensions of impoverishment' are interlinked because of their causal relations and their resultant impacts on the displaced communities. It is important, therefore, to take these dimensions into consideration while planning for the resettlement and rehabilitation of the displaced. The advantage of the 'impoverishment risks' analysis model is that it also provides the much-needed conceptual framework for participatory planning.

This would mean that however appropriate and effective a policy framework may be, such as the Bank's policy, it is necessary to complement it with a conceptual framework so that the displaced are resettled with better housing, civic amenities, access to social infrastructure, including health-care services, and rehabilitated by restoring, or sometimes even improving, livelihoods and incomes so that the Bank's policy objectives are met. The 'impoverishment risks' analysis model is, therefore, a management tool for planning.

Rapid Assessment Procedures (RAP) has developed over the years four main processes and trends -- fast repertoire enrichment, application in new sectors and sub-sectors through content adaptation and cross-fertilisation, geographic broadening in its elaboration and application and finally the shift from technique to substance. When practised correctly and creatively, these rapid techniques often develop the capacity to carry their practitioners further in a new substantive direction as participatory data generation techniques increase the opportunities for participatory planning. The 'impoverishment risks' analysis which we have started using in India is also an effective tool for RAP and for Participatory Rural Appraisal. The successful use of 'impoverishment risks' analysis as a tool for Participatory Rural Appraisal is also an indication that it could fit into any of the processes and trends related to Rapid Assessment Procedures and help with 'putting people first' and the displaced people first of all.

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