Compendium of Meteorology

By Thomas F. Malone | Go to book overview

COMPENDIUM
OF
METEOROLOGY

Prepared under the Direction of the
Committee on the Compendium of Meteorology
H. R. BYERS H. E. LANDSBERG H. WEXLER
B. HAURWITZ A. F. SPILHAUS H. C. WILLETT
H. G. HOUGHTON, Chairman

Edited by
THOMAS F. MALONE

AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY
BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS
1951

-iii-

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Compendium of Meteorology
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Table of Contents vii
  • Composition of the Atmosphere 1
  • Contents 1
  • The Composition of Atmospheric Air 3
  • References 9
  • Radiation 11
  • Contents 11
  • Solar Radiant Energy and Its Modification by the Earth and Its Atmosphere 13
  • References 31
  • Long-Wave Radiation 34
  • References 48
  • Actinometric Measurements 50
  • References 56
  • Meteorological Optics 59
  • Contents 59
  • General Meteorological Optics 61
  • References 77
  • Polarization of Skylight 79
  • References 88
  • Visibility in Meteorology 91
  • References 96
  • Atmospheric Electricity 99
  • Contents 99
  • Universal Aspects of Atmospheric Electricity 101
  • References 119
  • Ions in the Atmosphere 120
  • References 126
  • Precipitation Electricity 128
  • References 134
  • The Lightning Discharge 136
  • References 143
  • Instruments and Methods for the Measurement of Atmospheric Electricity 144
  • References 151
  • Radioactivity of the Atmosphere 155
  • References 160
  • Cloud Physics 163
  • Contents 163
  • On the Physics of Clouds and Precipitation 165
  • References 179
  • Nuclei of Atmospheric Condensation 182
  • References 190
  • The Physics of Ice Clouds and Mixed Clouds 192
  • References 197
  • Thermodynamics of Clouds 199
  • References 205
  • The Formation of Ice Crystals 207
  • References 220
  • Snow and Its Relationship to Experimental Meteorology 221
  • References 233
  • Relation of Artificial Cloud-Modification to the Production of Precipitation 235
  • References 241
  • The Upper Atmosphere 243
  • Contents 243
  • General Aspects of Upper Atmospheric Physics 245
  • References 259
  • Photochemical Processes in the Upper Atmosphere and Resultant Composition 262
  • References 273
  • Ozone in the Atmosphere 275
  • References 288
  • Radiative Temperature Changes in the Ozone Layer 292
  • References 300
  • Temperatures and Pressures in the Upper Atmosphere 303
  • References 309
  • Water Vapour in the Upper Air 311
  • References 319
  • Diffusion in the Upper Atmosphere 320
  • References 332
  • The Ionosphere 334
  • References 340
  • Night-Sky Radiations from the Upper Atmosphere 341
  • References 345
  • Aurorae and Magnetic Storms 347
  • References 355
  • Meteors as Probes of the Upper Atmosphere 356
  • References 363
  • Sound Propagation in the Atmosphere 366
  • References 375
  • Cosmical Meteorology 377
  • Contents 377
  • Solar Energy Variations as a Possible Cause of Anomalous Weather Changes 379
  • References 389
  • The Atmospheres of the Other Planets 391
  • References 397
  • Dynamics of the Atmosphere 399
  • Contents 399
  • The Perturbation Equations in Meteorology 401
  • References 420
  • The Solution of Nonlinear Meteorological Problems by the Method of Characteristics 421
  • References 433
  • Hydrodynamic Instability 434
  • References 452
  • Stability Properties of Large-Scale Atmospheric Disturbances 454
  • References 463
  • The Quantitative Theory of Cyclone Development 464
  • References 469
  • Dynamic Forecasting by Numerical Process 470
  • References 482
  • Energy Equations 483
  • References 491
  • Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion 492
  • References 507
  • Atmospheric Tides and Oscillations 510
  • References 528
  • Application of the Thermodynamics of Open Systems to Meteorology 531
  • References 537
  • The General Circulation 539
  • Contents 539
  • The Physical Basis for the General Circulation 541
  • References 549
  • Observational Studies of General Circulation Patterns 551
  • References 566
  • Applications of Energy Principles to the General Circulation 568
  • References 574
  • Mechanics of Pressure Systems 575
  • Contents 575
  • Extratropical Cyclones 577
  • References 598
  • The Aerology of Extratropical Disturbances 599
  • References 619
  • Anticyclones 621
  • References 628
  • Mechanism of Pressure Change 630
  • References 638
  • Large-Scale Vertical Velocity and Divergence 639
  • References 646
  • The Instability Line 647
  • References 652
  • Local Circulations 653
  • Contents 653
  • Local Winds 655
  • References 671
  • Tornadoes and Related Phenomena 673
  • References 679
  • Thunderstorms 681
  • References 692
  • Cumulus Convection and Entrainment 694
  • References 701
  • Observations and Analysis 703
  • Contents 703
  • World Weather Network 705
  • References 709
  • Models and Techniques of Synoptic Representation 711
  • References 714
  • Meteorological Analysis in the Middle Latitudes 715
  • References 726
  • Weather Forecasting 729
  • Contents 729
  • The Forecast Problem 731
  • References 746
  • Short-Range Weather Forecasting 747
  • References 764
  • A Procedure of Short-Range Weather Forecasting 766
  • References 794
  • Objective Weather Forecasting 796
  • References 801
  • General Aspects of Extended-Range Forecasting 802
  • References 812
  • Extended-Range Weather Forecasting 814
  • References 831
  • Extended-Range Forecasting by Weather Types 834
  • References 840
  • Verification of Weather Forecasts 841
  • References 848
  • Application of Statistical Methods to Weather Forecasting 849
  • References 854
  • Tropical Meteorology 857
  • Contents 857
  • Tropical Meteorology 859
  • References 878
  • Equatoml Meteorology 881
  • References 886
  • Tropical Cyclones 887
  • References 901
  • Aerology of Tropical Storms 902
  • References 912
  • Polar Meteorology 915
  • Contents 915
  • Antarctic Atmospheric Circulation 917
  • References 937
  • Arctic Meteorology 942
  • References 950
  • Some Climatological Problems of the Arctic and Sub-Arctic 952
  • References 963
  • Climatology 965
  • Contents 965
  • Climate — the Synthesis of Weather 967
  • References 974
  • Applied Climatology 976
  • References 990
  • Microclimatology 993
  • References 1002
  • Geological and Historical Aspects of Climatic Change 1004
  • References 1018
  • Climatic Implications of Glacier Research 1019
  • References 1022
  • Tree-Ring Indices of Rainfall, Temperature, and River Flow 1024
  • References 1029
  • Hydrometeorology 1031
  • Contents 1031
  • Hydrometeorology in the United States 1033
  • References 1046
  • The Hydrologic Cycle and Its Relation to Meteorology — River Forecasting 1048
  • References 1054
  • Marine Meteorology 1055
  • Contents 1055
  • Large-Scale Aspects of Energy Transformation Over the Oceans 1057
  • References 1069
  • Evaporation from the Oceans 1071
  • References 1080
  • Forecasting Ocean Wavesm 1082
  • References 1088
  • Ocean Waves as a Meteorological Tool 1090
  • References 1100
  • Biological and Chemical Meteorology 1101
  • Contents 1101
  • Aerobiology 1103
  • References 1110
  • Physical Aspects of Human Bioclimatology 1112
  • References 1123
  • Some Problems of Atmospheric Chemistry 1126
  • References 1135
  • Atmospheric Pollution 1137
  • Contents 1137
  • Atmospheric Pollution 1139
  • References 1155
  • Clouds, Fog, and Aircraft Icing 1159
  • Contents 1159
  • The Classification of Cloud Forms 1161
  • References 1166
  • The Use of Clouds in Forecasting 1167
  • References 1176
  • Fog 1179
  • References 1189
  • Physical and Operational Aspects of Aircraft Icing 1190
  • References 1195
  • Meteorological Aspects of Aircraft Icing 1197
  • References 1203
  • Meteorological Instruments 1205
  • Contents 1205
  • Instruments and Techniques for Meteorological Measurements 1207
  • References 1221
  • Aircraft Meteorological Instruments 1223
  • References 1230
  • Laboratory Investigations 1233
  • Contents 1233
  • Experimental Analogies to Atmospheric Motions 1235
  • References 1246
  • Model Techniques in Meteorological Research 1249
  • References 1254
  • Experimental Cloud Formation 1255
  • References 1261
  • Radiometeorology 1263
  • Contents 1263
  • Radar Storm Observation 1265
  • References 1281
  • Theory and Observation of Radar Storm Detection 1283
  • References 1289
  • Meteorological Aspects of Propagation Problems 1290
  • References 1295
  • Sferics 1297
  • References 1300
  • Microseisms 1301
  • Contents 1301
  • Observations and Theory of Microseisms 1303
  • References 1310
  • Practical Application of Microseisms to Forecasting 1312
  • References 1315
  • Index 1317
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