Assessing Higher Order Thinking in Mathematics

By Gerald Kulm | Go to book overview

3
Power Items and the Alignment
of Curriculum and Assessment

TEJ PANDEY

The declining test scores on NAEP, SAT, Iowa, and several state testing programs from the mid-1960s to mid-1970s have resulted in many studies and commission reports, such as A Nation At Risk, The Paideia Proposal, A Place Called School, A Study of High Schools, Educating Americans for the 21st Century, and The American High School. These reports generated concern for better education, resulting in the "excellence movement." Many states and school districts across the nation have set high expectations and goals for all learners and have devised programs for helping students and schools in ways that allow them to reach those high expectations. The ideas from effective school research have become the hallmark to promote excellence. Among many effective school practices, the one that is important to the discussion in this chapter is the organizing of clear and visible goals around which instruction can be continually targeted and implementing assessment and indicator programs to monitor the progress of students as well as of school systems. What is curriculum alignment and what are some of the issues related to curriculum, instruction, and assessment (CIA) alignment in the setting of the current reform movement?

This chapter will discuss issues and strategies in planning assessment instruments in mathematics that would support the reform. In particular, the discussion focuses on the nature of the test instruments most suitable for large-scale accountability assessment programs. It is recommended that "power items" be used for such purposes. Suggestions are offered for defining content domains and item specifications and for constructing power questions in the context of CIA alignment.


Curriculum Alignment

The NCTM Standards for School Mathematics ( 1989) states that "In assessing students' learning, assessment methods and tasks should be aligned with the content and instructional goals of the curriculum." In a broader sense, the curriculum is composed of goals and objectives, or intended curriculum, instruction, and assessment. When all three match -- that is, instruction and assessment focus on stated objectives -- then the effects of schooling are usually both understandable and impressive. In other words, instruction and assessment should both be derived from the objectives, and instruction and assessment must be designed to support each other. The greater the mismatch between the tests and instruction with the intended curriculum, the more uncertain we are about the instructional needs of the students and the effectiveness of the instructional program. To derive meaningful inferences, instruction, as well as assessment content and procedures, should be derived from the

-39-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Assessing Higher Order Thinking in Mathematics
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 214

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.