A Handbook for Data Analysis in the Behavioral Sciences: Statistical Issues

By Gideon Keren; Charles Lewis | Go to book overview

One approach to the analysis of categorical data that we have not discussed is the method of weighted least squares, as developed by Grizzle, Starmer, and Koch ( 1969). In this methodology, a transformation of the cell probabilities is made so that the "usual" linear model, as applied to continuous data, holds, approximately, for this transformed data. This methodology has the advantage of being very flexible but has some shortcomings in comparison with maximum likelihood techniques.

We have not talked at all about defining or making inferences about measures of association in contingency tables. The series of papers by Goodman and Kruskal ( 1954, 1959, 1963, 1972) should be referred to here. For material on the related topic of measures of agreement see Cohen ( 1960) or Lin ( 1974). We have not discussed tables where there is an ordering of the categories of certain variables. Haberman ( 1974a) and Williams and Grizzle ( 1972) discuss this from the log-linear and weighted least squares approaches, respectively. There has recently been interest in the analysis of contingency tables arising from cluster or stratified sampling schemes. Altham ( 1976), Brier ( 1979), and Cohen ( 1976) discuss some aspects of this problem.


REFERENCES

Altham, P. M. E. ( 1976). "Discrete variable analysis for individuals grouped into families". Biometrika, 63, 263-269.

Birch, M. W. ( 1963). "Maximum likelihood in three-way contingency tables". Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 25, 220-233.

Birch, M. W. ( 1964). "A new proof of the Pearson-Fisher theorem". Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 35, 718-724.

Bishop, Y. M. M., Fienberg, S. E., & Holland, P. W. ( 1975). Discrete multivariate analysis: Theory and practice. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bradley, R. A., & Terry, M. E. ( 1952). "Rank analysis of incomplete block designs. I. The method of paired comparisons". Biometrika, 39, 324-345.

Brier, S. S. ( 1979). The utility of systems of simultaneous logistic response equations. In K. F. Schuessler (Ed.), Sociological methodology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Brier, S. S. ( 1979). Categorical data models for complex sampling schemes. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, School of Statistics, University of Minnesota.

Chernoff, H., & Lehmann, E. L. ( 1954). "The use of maximum likelihood estimates in X2 tests for goodness of fit". Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 25, 579-586.

Cochran, W. ( 1952). "The X2 test of goodness of fit". Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 23, 315- 345.

Cohen, J. ( 1960). "A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales". Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20, 37-46.

Cohen, J. ( 1976). "The distribution of the chi-squared statistic under clustered sampling from contingency tables". Journal of the American Statistical Association, 71, 665-670.

Coleman, J. S. ( 1964). Introduction to mathematical sociology. New York: Free Press.

Cox, D. R. ( 1970). The analysis of binary data. London: Methuen.

Davidson, R. R., & Farquhar, P. H. ( 1976). "A bibliography on the method of paired comparisons". Biometrics, 32, 233-240.

-292-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
A Handbook for Data Analysis in the Behavioral Sciences: Statistical Issues
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 540

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.