International Handbook on Chemical Weapons Proliferation

By Gordon M. Burck; Charles C. Flowerree | Go to book overview

Chapter 2
Chemical Weapons in the Iran-Iraq War

During the Iran-Iraq War, Iraq used CW agents on the largest scale seen since WWI, used them as much against its own citizens (the Kurds) as against the Iranians, used nerve gas for the first time in any war, and was the first "Third World" country to develop and utilize a full offensive and defensive CW capability. Although use in the first years of the war was experimental or mistakenly reported, use after late 1983 increased as production facilities came on line. The United Nations made a series of investigations, starting in 1984, which compiled convincing proof of the Iraqi attacks. In 1988, after the most publicized attack of the war -- on Halabja -- Iraqi official admitted that they had used CW agents, although continuing to allege that Iran had done so first. And in April 1990, President Saddam Hussein proclaimed that Iraq had possessed a new CW munition since 1988 that would be used to retaliate for any nuclear attacks on Iraq or other Arab countries.

This chapter gives two analyses of the Iraqi CW capability and concludes with a look at the verbal war of mutual accusations between Iran and Iraq. The first and principal analysis covers the "non-use" parts of the outline to be used for other country reviews (described in Chapter 3), concentrating on the alleged and demonstrated means by which Iraq acquired CW munitions and production facilities.

The second analysis describes Iraq's chemical war against Iran, covering general military capabilities, motivations for originating and continuing the use of chemicals, the situations where CW agents were used, including both reasoning and outcomes, world response to the use of chemicals, and a summary (albeit necessarily still preliminary) consideration of the overall effect of chemicals on the war. The military utility of CW agents and the political costs of acquiring and using them are important considerations for any effort to ban chemical weapons.

-31-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
International Handbook on Chemical Weapons Proliferation
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 650

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.