The Spanish-Americans of New Mexico: A Heritage of Pride

By Nancie L. González | Go to book overview

The following chapter will discuss in greater detail some of the characteristics of the modern urbanized Hispano population in New Mexico, stressing the major city of Albuquerque but also using materials from other cities where available.


Notes
1
The historian Marc Simmons ( 1965) has recently made this point and has suggested that further research may show New Mexico to have been better off economically than is usually thought. Jones ( 1932:277-278) also argued this position.
2
See especially Minge ( 1965), Simmons ( 1965), and Zeleny ( 1944) for further information on the cultural aspects of the Mexican period.
3
Dr. Myra Ellen Jenkens, the State Archivist of New Mexico, has suggested this point (personal communication).
4
For further accounts of Father Martinez and his fascinating career, see Francis ( 1956b); H. Fergusson ( 1933:122).
5
Anglos did not settle in large numbers in all parts of the state. According to Holmes ( 1964:11-12):

In 1900 the 195,000 residents of the Territory were still concentrated in the traditional area of settlement along the Rio Grande. In the nine Hispanic counties of Bernalillo, Dona Ana, Mora, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Santa Fe, Socorro, Taos, and Valencia, reside 132,000 persons--67 percent of the population of the Territory. This population and that of most of the adjacent areas was largely of native-born citizens of Hispanic surname. As late as 1915 Spanish-Americans numbered 57 percent of the state's total population and constituted 75 percent or more of the population of eleven counties; between 50 and 75 percent in three; and from 25 to 50 percent in four others of the state's twenty-six counties. By 1950 the proportion of residents of Hispanic surname had dropped to 37 percent in the state, and only ten of the thirty-two counties mustered an Hispanic population of 50 percent or more.

6
See Burma ( 1954:18); Edmonson ( 1957); Embudo Report ( 1961:33,39,79); Knowlton ( 1961:20); Leonard ( 1943:34); Maes ( 1941:11); Weaver ( 1965:16); Wolff ( 1950:53); U.S. Dept. of Agriculture ( 1937f); among others.
7
There are many studies of migratory wage laborers, though few that attempt to analyze their way of life as a distinct subculture or their social structure from a systematic point of view. See, however, Goldschmidt ( 1947); and

-134-

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The Spanish-Americans of New Mexico: A Heritage of Pride
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Acknowledgments vi
  • Contents vii
  • Introduction ix
  • Notes xv
  • Chapter I - Setting 5
  • Notes 14
  • Chapter II - Language, Race, and Culture 15
  • Notes 30
  • Chapter III - Early Settlement and Traditional Culture 33
  • Notes 55
  • Chapter IV - Social System 58
  • Notes 83
  • Chapter V - Voluntary Associations 86
  • Notes 114
  • Chapter VI - The Wages of Change 116
  • Notes 134
  • Chapter VII - Effects of Urbanization 136
  • Notes 176
  • Chapter VIII - The Continuing Scene: Activism in New Mexico, 1966-1969 179
  • Notes 195
  • Chapter IX - Summary and Conclusions 197
  • Notes 213
  • Bibliography 215
  • Index 237
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